05 December 2023

The Sephardic family
roots and heritage
of John Desmond Bernal,
Limerick scientist

John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971) … one of the most interesting and important Irish-born scientists of the last century

by Patrick Comerford

Introducing JD Bernal[1]

John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971) was one of the most interesting and important Irish-born scientists of the twentieth century. JD Bernal was born near Nenagh, Co Tipperary, on 10 May 1901, and died in London on 15 September 1971. But he had strong family roots in nineteenth century Limerick and many members of his immediate family are buried near the south porch of Saint Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick. The Bernal family grave is in a quiet corner of the cathedral churchyard, facing the south porch and door, and many of us also know or are familiar with the Bernal Institute on the campus of the University of Limerick.

John Desmond Bernal, crystallographer, molecular physicist, social scientist, committed Communist, campaigner for world peace, and friend of Pablo Picasso, was the eldest child of Samuel George Bernal (1864-1919) of Brookwatson, near Nenagh, and his wife, Elizabeth ‘Bessie’ Miller, who had married the previous year. Samuel George Bernal’s father, JD Bernal’s grandfather, was John Bernal (1819-1898) of Albert Lodge, Laurel Hill, Limerick.[2]

The Bernal grave in the churchyard at Saint Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick (Photograph Patrick Comerford)

Many people thought Bernal was a member of the family of the prominent Victorian politician, Ralph Bernal Osborne (1808-1882), of Newtown Anner House, Co Tipperary, who was a Liberal MP for a number of English constituencies (1841-1868) before becoming MP for Waterford (1870-1874).[3] But, in fact, John Bernal of Limerick was born Jacob de Isaac Haim Genese. His ancestors had been Sephardic Jews who lived in Venice from at least the mid-seventeenth century, and before that they had lived in the Ancona area of southern Italy for many generations. The family moved through Amsterdam to London, and Jacob arrived in Ireland in the 1840s from London.

When Jacob de Isaac Haim Genese settled in Ireland, he changed his name to John Bernal and joined the Church of Ireland. He married Catherine Maria Carroll in Dublin in 1841, and she brought up their children as Roman Catholics.[4]

Their son, Samuel George Bernal, was born in Limerick on 22 May 1864. At the age of 20, he ran away from Limerick to Australia in 1884, and there he worked on a sheep farm. When his father died in 1898, he returned to live in Ireland and at first stayed with his sister, Margaret Riggs-Miller, at Tullaheady, just outside Nenagh, Co Tipperary.

Brookwatson near Nenagh, Co Tipperary, the childhood home of the scientist John Desmond Bernal (Photograph Patrick Comerford)

Later that year, he bought the farm in Brookwatson on the Portumna road outside Nenagh, and built the present house. On a visit to continental Europe, he met his future wife, Elizabeth ‘Bessie’ Miller (1869-1951), in Belgium. Bessie was an energetic, educated and much-travelled woman, the daughter of an Irish-born Presbyterian minister from Co Antrim, the Revd William Young Miller of Illinois. She became a Roman Catholic before they married on 9 January 1900. They were the parents of five children, three sons and two daughters, including John Desmond Bernal, who was the eldest child, and Kevin O’Carroll Diaz Bernal (1903-1996), who continued to run the family farm.

There was less than a two-year age gap between the brothers John Desmond and Kevin, and as boys they were very close for many years. At first, they both went to the local convent school, but they later went to the Church of Ireland national school in Nenagh. However, the young John Desmond Bernal was a devout Catholic throughout his school days.[5]

In 1910, Samuel Bernal decided to send his two eldest sons to school in Lancashire, first to Hodder Place, the Jesuit preparatory school, and then Stonyhurst, the leading Jesuit-run public school in England. At Stonyhurst, John would recall, he worked his way through the school library each Sunday after Mass. After a short time at Bedford, he went on to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1919 for an undergraduate degree in Natural Science. There he developed a strong interest in the developing science of X-ray crystallography. At Cambridge too he became an active Marxist, beginning a lifelong commitment to Communism.[6]

The Bernal Institute at the University of Limerick (Photograph Patrick Comerford)

From Cambridge, Bernal joined WH Bragg in his research at the Royal Institution (RI) in 1923. In 1927, he became the first lecturer in structural crystallography at Cambridge, and he was appointed the assistant director of the Cavendish Laboratory in 1934. However, he was refused fellowships at Emmanuel College and Christ’s College and tenure by Ernest Rutherford, who is said to have disliked him.[7]

Bernal remained at Cambridge until 1937, when he became Professor of Physics at Birkbeck College, University of London, and head of the newly established department of crystallography. His research included the first X-ray diffraction pattern of a protein and ground-breaking work on the structure of viruses and proteins that lead to the foundation of molecular biology. This development fundamentally changed the focus of biochemical research and the understanding of biological activity as it made it possible to examine the 3-D chemical structure of the component species.[8]

At Birkbeck, he founded the Biomolecular Research Laboratory in 1948, and it later became the internationally renowned Crystallography Department. As Professor of Physics at Birkbeck College, London, and later as Professor of Crystallography, he presided over a centre of excellence that was celebrated worldwide. Bernal would identify new fields to explore but then leave them to trusted colleagues. He wrote several books, published 224 scientific papers and almost 400 articles, lectured regularly on scientific and political topics worldwide and was involved in the foundation of UNESCO. During World War II, Bernal worked on operational research, contributing to the planning of the D-day landings and the US honoured him with the Medal of Freedom in 1945. Later, he was interested in rebuilding Britain and initiated research into the structure and properties of metal hydroxides and the silicate components of cements.[9]

Bernal had a reputation as a selfless supporter of young scientists, and his peers referred to him affectionately as ‘Sage’. Two of his former students, Dorothy Hodgkin and Max Perutz, received Nobel prizes for pioneering work in protein crystallography for the first structural determination of vitamin B12 and haemoglobin, respectively. Perutz is known as ‘the godfather of molecular biology,’ and one of his students, Francis Crick, received the Nobel Prize for unravelling the structure of DNA with James Watson. It is remarkable, therefore, that Bernal never received a Nobel Prize, although two or three of his students did. Conventional wisdom has it that he spread himself too wide and was too involved in other matters to achieve this ultimate accolade.[10]

Bernal was driven by a belief that science and technology would improve the living standards of humanity if properly focused and he was a campaigner for peace and demilitarisation in the years after World War II. Although he had supported the Allied war effort and was involved in planning the Normandy landings, he was often ostracised in the West, with both the US and France refusing him visas in later years. Over half a century, he met many world leaders including Nehru, Khrushchev, Mao and Ho Chi Minh. He was the first president of the Cambridge Scientists Anti-War Group, president of the World Peace Council and drafted the constitution for the World Federation of Scientific Workers.[11]

A story is told of Bernal’s meeting with Pablo Picasso in 1950. Picasso had come to England to attend a peace conference that Bernal was instrumental in organising. When the British government refused visas to the delegates from Eastern Europe, the conference was cancelled and some of those present retired to Bernal’s flat in London for a ‘peace party’. That evening, Picasso painted a mural on the wall of the flat in Torrington Square. The house was demolished later, but the mural survived and is now on display in London as part of the Wellcome Collection, and is known as ‘Bernal’s Picasso’.[12]

Bernal became disillusioned with the Soviet Union after the invasion of Hungary in 1956, but he never renounced his socialist or communist beliefs. He was to remain a thorn in the side of Western governments until the end of his days.

He married Alice Eileen Sprague in 1922, a day after receiving his BA at Cambridge. They had two sons, Mike (1926-2016) and Egan (born 1930). He was also the father of two children with the artist Margaret Gardiner (1904-2005) and a daughter with the writer Margaret Heinemann (1913-1992). John Desmond Bernal suffered a stroke in the summer of 1963, followed by a second stroke in September 1965. He retired in 1968 and died on 15 September 1971. His legacy was the development of crystallography as a central tool across the sciences. The Bernal Institute at the University of Limerick is named after JD Bernal, who remains one of the most influential and interesting Irish-born scientists of the twentieth century.[13]

John Bernal ran his business from No 9 Thomas Street, Limerick (Photograph Patrick Comerford)

Tracing the Bernal family

John Desmond Bernal’s grandfather, John Bernal (1819-1898), was a Limerick auctioneer and a city councillor. He was a member of the city council for over a quarter of a century as a councillor for the Dock Ward. He had auction rooms in George Street and later at 9 Thomas Street in Limerick. When he died on 17 September 1898, he was living at Albert Lodge in Laurel Hill.[14]

As his funeral moved from his home at Laurel Hill to Saint Mary’s Cathedral along George (now O’Connell) Street, all the city businesses remained shut as a mark of respect. The Mayor of Limerick, Michael Cusack (1834-1907), attended in full regalia, along with the mace and sword bearers and all the members of the City Council. Canon James Fitzgerald Gregg (1820-1907), who officiated at the funeral, was later Dean of Limerick (1899-1905).[15]

At least three generations of the Bernal family are buried with John Bernal in the churchyard at Saint Mary’s Cathedral, as well as his wife Catherine Maria Carroll, who had died over 17 years earlier in 1881. They had been married in Dublin in 1841, and they had a large family of eleven children – eight daughters and three sons.

In her biographical notice of Bernal, the Nobel chemist Dorothy Hodgkin provides considerable detail about the Bernal family, tracing the earliest records back to Spanish accounts of a family of Sephardic Jews. She begins with a Bernal who was an apothecary who travelled with Columbus on his third voyage to America in 1502.[16] Abraham Nuñez Bernal was burned alive in Cordoba by the Spanish Inquisition in 1654. His brother is supposed to have fled first to Holland and then to England.[17]

The women’s balcony above the entrance to the synagogue in Córdoba … Abraham Nuñez Bernal was burned alive by the Spanish Inquisition in Córdoba in 1654 (Photograph Patrick Comerford)

A descendant of this family includes Ralph Bernal (1783-1854), a prominent Whig politician, and his son, also Ralph Bernal MP, who married a wealthy Irish heiress, Catherine Isabella Osborne (1819-1880), daughter of Sir Arthur Osborne, and became Ralph Bernal-Osborne (1808-1882). A Liberal MP, he lived at Newton Anner, near Clonmel, Co Tipperary, and they were the grandparents of Osborne Beauclerk, 12th Duke of St Albans.[18] These connections may have given the Bernal name a note of political and aristocratic distinction around Co Limerick and Co Tipperary, and they help to explain why JD Bernal and his family emphasised their descent from the Bernal family. But the original name of JD Bernal’s grandfather, John Bernal, was Jacob de Isaac Haim Genese.

Although the Genese or Bernal family is virtually forgotten in Limerick today, they are one of the many interesting Sephardi families on these islands. The family first came to London from the Jewish Ghetto in Venice in 1749, and for long have been members of Bevis Marks Synagogue, which opened in 1701, making it the oldest working synagogue on these islands.[19]

The Scuola Italiana or Italian synagogue in the heart of the Ghetto in Venice … the Genese family were members of this synagogue (Photograph Patrick Comerford)

A genealogical excursus

In her biographical notice, Dorothy Hodgkin claims JD Bernal was descended from a Bernal who was an apothecary who travelled with Columbus on his third voyage to America in 1502. Abraham Nuñez Bernal was burned alive in Cordoba by the Spanish Inquisition in 1654. His brother is supposed to have fled first to Holland and then to England.[20]

However, I have been able to trace JD Bernal back in the direct male line in a genealogical tree that shows nine generations, from father to son, from Shmuel Genese, who was living in the Ghetto in Venice in the late seventeenth century. Their synagogue membership in Venice shows the Genese family were of Italian Jewish (Italkim) origin rather than a family of Sephardic Jews who fled the Inquisition in Italy.

We have to go back to Bernal’s great-great grandmother, Esther de Abraham Bernal, who married Samuel de Isaac Genese in the Bevis Marks Synagogue in London. The family in Limerick can be traced through parish records, mainly in Saint Michael’s Church, and through gravestones, including the family graves at the South Porch in Saint Mary’s Cathedral. But tracing the family before it came to Ireland was more difficult. Louis Hyman, says JD Bernal’s ancestors first settled in Waterford, rather than Limerick, and makes no connection with the Genese family, who had businesses in Limerick and Dublin.

So, how did I come across this fascinating family of ancient Jews, with a long lineage, and who moved from Ancona, to Venice, to Amsterdam, to London, to Dublin and to Limerick? They are a family that marries into some of the most eminent Sephardic families of Europe, with names like Lopes, Mendoza, Isaacs, Castro, Tubi, Nunes Martinez, Crespo and Levy.

Admittedly, I came across the family almost by accident. I was interested in two brothers, Henry (Harry) William John Comerford (1874-1958) and Albert (Bert) Alfred George Comerford (1879-1973), who had married two sisters, Rosina Sarah Sipple (1881-1958) and Agnes Violet Sipple (1884-1965). In my genealogical research on the Comerford family, these two brothers almost slipped under the radar. They were involved in stage, theatre, show business and early films at the beginning of the last century, but they used stage names, Harry Ford and Bert Brantford, which disguised their family origins.

Eventually, as I traced their families, I realised that Rosina and Agnes, the two sisters who married these two brothers, were Jewish by birth through their mothers. Although their grandparents were from the heart of the Jewish East End in nineteenth century London, they were descended from a long line of Sephardic families, associated for many generations with the Bevis Marks Synagogue in London.

At some stage in tracing this branch of the family through the East End, Amsterdam and Seville, I also came across the story of Daniel Mendoza (1764-1836), once one of the best-known and most celebrated boxers in sporting history on these islands. One hunch led to another, as is so often the case in genealogical research, and within weeks of visiting the Jewish quarter in Seville, I ended up tracing a very long-tailed family with links to Jewish communities throughout Europe.

To summarise the connections: the brothers Harry and Bert Comerford married two sisters, Rosina and Agnes Sipple, who were fourth cousins of Samuel George Bernal of Limerick, father of John Desmond Bernal, and fourth cousins too of Peg Marks (1892-1962), the mother of the actor Peter Sellers (1925-1980).

Inside the Scuola Spagnola in Venice, founded around 1580 by Spanish and Portuguese speaking Jews (Photograph Patrick Comerford)

Some conclusions

John Desmond Bernal was one of the most distinguished Irish-born scientists, and had deep family roots in Limerick, where his father Samuel George Bernal (1864-1919) was born, and where his grandfather was a member of the city council.

The story of the Genese family, with their Jewish roots, and their subsequent membership of the Church of Ireland and the Roman Catholic Church in Limerick, offers interesting insights into the religious, ethnic and cultural backgrounds of people in Limerick that need to be celebrated more consciously in a time when the place of immigrants is questioned and when definitions of Irish identity are in danger of becoming more narrow.

Genealogists should never trust what is too easily regarded as ‘accepted wisdom’. We must always question what is handed on as family story, look for evidence, trust only primary sources, and be willing to look for what other people may hide or forget. The results are rewarding because, in the long run, we find we have the most interesting family connections that make us part of diversity and pluralism not only in Ireland, but throughout Europe.

For too long, telling the story of Limerick’s Jewish community has been overshadowed by what has been called the ‘Limerick Pogrom’.[21] It is a story that must not be forgotten, but, as Des Ryan has pointed out, it is not the only, or overarching story in the history of Limerick Jews. Bernal’s ancestors are an example of the variety of Jewish life in Limerick.

Another example includes Henry Jaffé, who left Limerick in 1904 and was the grandfather of the journalist and popular historian Simon Sebag Montefiore and his brother, the writer and historian Hugh Sebag Montefiore. But their great-great-grandparents, Benjamin and Rachel Jaffe remained in Limerick and were living in Catherine Street in 1911, along with their great-grandparents, Marcus and Leah Jaffe. Or there is Limerick’s last resident rabbi, Simon Gewurtz (1887-1944) from Bratislava, who links the story of Limerick’s Jews with the stories of the Holocaust.

Like other cities in Europe, from Seville, Cordoba and Porto to London, Prague, Bratislava and Krakow, I believe Limerick would be enriched by having a Jewish walking trail, and the story of the Bernal family would be an important part of that route.

The Ponte de Ghetto Vecchio leads into the Campo de Ghetto Nuovo in Venice (Photograph Patrick Comerford)

The Genese and Bernal family tree

The Genese family in Venice were silk merchants, upholsterers and house furnishers, and were living in the Ghetto Nuovo in Venice from the mid-1600s. A family tradition once proposed that the Genese family were Sephardic refugees who fled to Italy from the Inquisition in Portugal and took their name from Genoa. However, it is now generally accepted by Jewish genealogists that the family had lived in the Italian peninsula for many centuries before they first appear in Venice in the 1640s.

It is now thought the name is derived from the town of San Ginesio, about 60 km south-west of Ancona, where there was a Jewish community with a continuous presence for 2,000 years. The family were members of the Scuola Italiana in Venice, rather than the Spagnola Synagogue. This would indicate clearly that they were descended not from refugees from Spain or Portugal in the late fifteenth century or later but had Italkim (Italian-rite) origins.

Shemuel Ginesi (ca 1650-1703) and his wife, Benvenida (ca 1645-1707), lived in the Ghetto in Venice and were buried in the Jewish Cemetery in the Lido. Their son, Emanuel or Mandolino Ginesi, was a community official in Venice in the first half of the 1700s. His son, David Genese, was living in the Ghetto Nuovo in Venice in September 1739.

David Genese was the father of Isaco or Isaac Genese (Gienese, Ginesi or Guinese), who arrived in London from Italy about 1749, perhaps having first moved to Amsterdam, where there was a large Sephardi community, descended from Spanish, Portuguese and Italian families. This move to London coincides with a time when Italian Jewish families – including the D’Israelis, the Anconas and the Sanguinettis – were arriving in larger numbers and changing the make-up of the Bevis Marks community. Until 1715, the members of the synagogue were almost wholly Spanish refugees or Amsterdam-Spanish migrants, and then from 1715 to 1739 overwhelmingly refugees from Portugal.

A year later, in 1750, Isaac Genese and Sarah de Isaac Lopez were married in the Spanish and Portuguese or Bevis Marks Synagogue in London. They were the parents of six children:

1 a daughter (died in infancy, 1757).
2 Rachel Sarah (died December 1817).
3 David Genese, who married his first cousin Benevenida de Abraham Mendoza, a sister of Daniel Mendoza (1764-1836), the celebrated boxer of the Georgian era. David died in 1784, and has no known descendants.
4 Siporah, who married David de Moses Nabaro.
5 Samuel Genese (born 1767) who married Rebecca de Emmanuel Capua in 1790, and they were the parents of eleven children, of whom four died in childhood.
6 Samson de Isaac Genese (born 1769), who married Esther de Abraham Bernal in 1791, a member of a well-known Sephardic family of Spanish descent.

The youngest son, Samson de Isaac Genese (born 1769), married Esther de Abraham Bernal, which is how the Bernal name was introduced to the family. Samson and Esther were the parents of seven children:

1 Isaac Haim Genese (1793-1858), married Esther Jacobs and later moved to Ireland.
2 Rachel (died young).
3 Abraham de Samson Genese (died unmarried, 1859).
4 Samson Genese (junior), married Hannah Simons; they have many living descendants.
5 Samuel Genese (1805-1888), married Rachel Levy (1821-1871); they have many living descendants.
6 Simha.
7 David de Samson Genese (1807-1874), has many living descendants; his son, Joseph de David Genese (born 1851), had eleven children, the youngest born in 1886.

The eldest son, Isaac Haim Genese (1793-1858), married Esther Isaacs in London in 1817. They were the parents of five children, including:

1 Jacob de Isaac Haim Genese, later known as John Bernal (1819-1898).
2 Samuel Genese (born 1820). In 1846, he took over running a snuff and tobacco shop at 34 Grafton Street, Dublin. He married and had at least three children, a son Samson Genese and two daughters, including a daughter Hannah. The two daughters were still running the shop in Grafton Street in 1885. He married Margaret Kelly in Saint Mary’s Church (Church of Ireland), Donnybrook, Dublin, in 1847.
3 Abraham (Bobby) Genese, who died in Limerick in 1847.
4 Rachel Genese (ca 1832-1902); her nephew Samuel Bernal was present at her death at Ormond Quay, Dublin, in 1902.

Isaac Genese was widowed when he moved from London to Ireland with his five surviving children around 1840, and lived in Dublin.[22] He set up an auctioneer’s business and later ran a bookshop and tobacconists. Sometime before 1848, Isaac Genese married his second wife in Dublin, and they had at least two further children:

1 Robert Genese (born 1848).
2 Caroline Genese (1850-1901), who married … Murtagh, and they have descendants.

Isaac Genese’s eldest son, Jacob de Isaac Haim Genese (1819-1898), was born on 29 April 1819. He changed his name to John Bernal, and with his brother Abraham (Bobby) Genese he moved to Limerick in the 1840s. Here they set up a business as auctioneers in Thomas Street and lived in Sexton Street.[23]

When Bobby Genese died in 1847, he was first buried by his brother in a Christian cemetery. But the Jewish community was upset, his body was exhumed, and he was brought to Dublin for burial in the Jewish Cemetery in Ballybough.[24]

Jacob Genese or John Bernal joined the Church of Ireland, and he married Catherine Maria Carroll in Dublin in 1841. They lived at Albert Lodge on Laurel Hill Avenue, Limerick, and he became a successful auctioneer, businessman and active politician in Victorian Limerick as John Bernal. Catherine Bernal, who raised their children as Roman Catholics, died in Limerick on 26 February 1881. Both Maria and John are buried in the churchyard at Saint Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick, in a raised area beside the south porch.[25]

They were the parents of twelve children, three sons and nine daughters:[26]

1 Catharine (1845-post 1875), married Dr Jeremiah O’Donovan in Dublin, on 24 February 1873.
2 Esther (1846-1875), died in Limerick, aged 29.
3 Dr Robert Arthur Bernal (1850-1876), of Albert Lodge, Laurel Hill Avenue, Limerick, and the Royal Navy. He married Catherine Elizabeth Donnelly (1856-1920) on 18 September 1875, in Dublin. He died 5 October 1876. They were the parents of a daughter, Catherine Elizabeth Mary Frances (Assherson), who was born in Dublin on 14 March 1877. The widowed Catherine (Donnelly) later married: (1) Charles Patrick Magee and (2) Eustatius Louis Emile Brand. She died in Cape Town in 1920.
4 John Theodore Bernal (born 1851).
5 Mary Gertrude (1851-1925), married William Patrick Ryan (1851- ) and they had a large family.
6 Grace (1855-1871), died aged 16.
7 Margaret Josephine (1856-1930) married Thomas John Ryan, later Thomas John Riggs-Miller, of Tyone House, Nenagh, in Saint Michael’s Church, Limerick, in 1877.
8 Clara Elizabeth (born ca 1863), married Thomas Greenwood in Saint Michael’s Church, Limerick, in 1884.
9 Samuel George Bernal (1864-1919).
10 Aimee Rachel (1866-1937), born Albert Lodge, Limerick, 10 July 1866. She died 11 November 1937. She married Robert Ward in Saint Michael’s Church, Limerick, in 1889 and they had a large family.
11 Frances Esther, died 17 March 1894, and buried at Saint Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick.
12 Emily, married Albert Pfaff in Saint Michael’s Church, Limerick, in 1889; she died on 28 July 1912.

Albert Lodge was later sold by the Walker family and to the Faithful Companions of Jesus (FCJ nuns) or Laurel Hill Nuns and became known as Maryville.[27]

Meanwhile, the third son and seventh child in this family, Samuel George Bernal (1864-1919), who was born in Limerick on 22 May 1864, bought a farm in Brookwatson in 1898 and built the family house. On 9 January 1900, he married Elizabeth ‘Bessie’ Miller (1869-1951), daughter of the Revd William Young Miller of Illinois, an Irish-born Presbyterian minister. She became a Roman Catholic before they married in 1900. Samuel Bernal died in Nenagh on 18 September 1919.[28]

Samuel and Bessie Bernal were the parents of five children, three sons and two daughters:

1 John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971), born Nenagh 10 May 1910, died in London 15 September 1971.
2 Kevin O’Carroll Diaz Bernal (1903-1996), born Nenagh 22 January 1903, married Margaret Mary Sinnott (1913-1995) and died 17 January 1996.
3 Catherine Elizabeth Geraldine (1906- ), born Nenagh.
4 Fiona Laetitia Evangeline (1908-1908), died at the age of nine weeks.
5 Godfrey Francis Johnston Bernal (1910-2005), born Nenagh, married Ellen Marie Rose McCarthy, died January 2005.

Bevis Marks Synagogue … the principal Sephardic synagogue in London (Photograph Patrick Comerford)


1. My research on John Desmond Bernal was first presented at lunchtime lectures in the Hunt Museum, Limerick, on 11 February 2020, and in Saint Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick, on 18 May 2021 (https://youtu.be/kx0OIY2J4oU)
2. Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin, ‘John Desmond Bernal, 10 May 1901 – 15 September 1971,’ Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (London: Royal Society, 1980, vol 26, issue 26, pp 16-84), pp 17-18.
3. See Louis Hyman, The Jews of Ireland: From Earliest Times to the Year 1910 (Shannon, 1973), p 86.
4. Hodgkin, pp 17-18.
5. Hodgkin, p 21.
6. Hodgkin, p 21-24.
7. Hodgkin, p 25-36; Andrew Brown, JD Bernal – The Sage of Science (Oxford, 2005), pp 90, 146, 187.
8. Hodgkin, pp 36-52.
9. Hodgkin, pp 52-59.
10. See Hodgkin, p 59-60.
11. Hodgkin, pp 60-72.
12. Hodgkin, p 61.
13. Hodgkin, p 72.
14. Hodgkin, p 18.
15. Funeral report, Limerick Chronicle, 22 September 1898; Hodgkin, p 18.
16. Hodgkin, p 17.
17. Jewish Encyclopaedia (1906), vol 3, p 87; Hodgkin, p 17.
18. Hodgkin, p 17.
19. I have constructed this family tree relying on Bevis Marks Records, Vols 1-6 of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish Congregation, London (ed Miriam Rodrigues Pereira); and publicly available family trees on ancestry.com; see also: Peter Brunning, ‘Bevis Marks records’, https://www.cantab.net/users/peter.brunning/melhado/bm.html (visited 1 June 2023).
20. Jewish Encyclopaedia (1906), vol 3, p 87.
21. See Des Ryan, ‘Jewish Limerick from 1790 to 1903’, The Old Limerick Journal, Winter edition 2014, pp 44-51; Hyman, pp 210-217.
22. Hyman, p 103, 210.
23. See https://limerickslife.com/constabulary/ (visited 1 June 2023).
24. Hyman, p 103, 210.
25. Gravestones, Saint Mary’s Cathedral; see http://www.limerickcity.ie/media/parker%20rebecca%20sdn.pdf.
26. I have constructed this family tree, relying mainly on parish records in Saint Michael’s Parish, Limerick, the Pro-Cathedral, Dublin; the burial records and gravestones in Saint Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick; and publicly available family trees on ancestry.com.
27. See https://limerickslife.com/constabulary/ (visited 1 June 2023).
28. Hodgkin, p 18.

(The Revd Canon Professor) Patrick Comerford was Precentor of Saint Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick, and priest-in-charge of the Rathkeale and Kilnaughtin Group of Parishes (Church of Ireland) until 2022. He has been an adjunct assistant professor in Trinity College Dublin, a lecturer in the Church of Ireland Theological Institute, and Foreign Desk Editor of The Irish Times. He now lives in retirement in Milton Keynes.

This paper is published in ‘The Old Limerick Journal’, ed Tom Donovan (Limerick: Limerick Museum, ISBN: 9781916294394, 72 pp), No 58, Winter 2023, pp 60-66

Daily prayers in Advent with
Leonard Cohen and USPG:
(3) 5 December 2023

‘A million candles burning / For the help that never came’ (Leonard Cohen) … Chief Rabbi Gabriel Negrin places candles in the Holocaust memorial in Etz Hayyim Synagogue in Chania (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Patrick Comerford

We are in the countdown to Christmas in the Church since Sunday, which was Advent Sunday or the First Sunday of Advent (3 December 2023), the first day in a new Church Year.

Before this day begins, I am taking time early this morning for prayer and reflection.

Throughout Advent this year, my reflections each day include a poem or song by Leonard Cohen. My Advent reflections are following this pattern:

1, A reflection on a poem or song by Leonard Cohen;

2, the Gospel reading of the day in the Church of England lectionary;

3, a prayer from the USPG prayer diary.

Leonard Cohen at the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham in 2012 (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

The Songs and Poems of Leonard Cohen: 3, ‘You Want It Darker’:

Leonard Cohen’s poetry and songs were marked by the scars of the Holocaust and reflected with intensity the spirituality of Central European Jewish spirituality. The rhythms of his music and his imagery also drew on the time he spent over many years in Greece.

A month before he died, I had bought his last album, You Want It Darker, which is both deeply spiritual and at the same time gives voice to his expectations of imminent death.

In an interview with the New Yorker magazine to coincide with this album, he declared a determination to keep working at his craft until the end. Yet he seemed to be aware that death was coming. ‘I’ve got some work to do,’ he said. ‘Take care of business. I am ready to die. I hope it’s not too uncomfortable. That’s about it for me.’

Shortly before his first muse, Marianne Ihlen, died, he wrote her a farewell letter telling her: ‘I will follow you very soon.’

The title track of You Want It Darker sounds like the bleak, religious confession of a man facing his own mortality. It is filled with allusions to Jewish liturgy, Christian liturgy and Biblical texts. The backing vocals are provided by the cantor and choir of a synagogue in Leonard Cohen’s home city, Montreal:

If You are the dealer, I’m out of the game
If You are the healer, I’m broken and lame
If Thine is the glory, then mine must be the shame
You want it darker – we kill the flame.
Magnified, sanctified is your holy name
Vilified, crucified in the human frame
A million candles burning for the help that never came
You want it darker – Hineni, Hineni, I’m ready, my Lord.

Here Cohen is quoting the Kaddish, the Jewish prayer for the dead (‘magnified, sanctified …’). He addresses God directly as the God who has dealt Cohen out of the game, and who has ignored the ‘million candles’ lit in vain hopes of salvation or redemption.

It is dark, but those who reach into the dark depths that are met on the most intense journeys in spirituality know that this too is accepting the majesty of God and the inevitability of death.

The Hebrew word Hineni which Leonard Cohen repeats in this song literally means: ‘Here I am.’ When it is uttered by Abraham and repeated by other Biblical figures, it is an assertion of moral responsibility: Here I am. I am not running away. Here I stand.

The word Hineni is also the title of the Cantor’s Prayer on Yom Kippur, in which the cantor confesses to being unworthy to represent the congregation and stand before the Almighty. It is almost as if Cohen is making a similar confession. I may be a poet, a hero, and a star, but You know as well as I do that I am unworthy of all that. I am here before You – ready for You to take me.

The song is enriched by extensive Jewish collaboration. The track features background vocals from Gideon Zelermyer, cantor of the Shaar Hashomayim synagogue in Montreal, along with the Shaar Hashomayim choir.

The Shaar Hashomayim cantor and choir also contribute to another song on the album, ‘It Seemed the Better Way.’

This was an 82-year-old poet at the end of a long and deeply spiritual life. It is not surprising, therefore, that this song echoes the language and rhythm of the Kaddish, the prayer for mourners that reaffirms faith in God.

Glorified and sanctified be God’s great name throughout the world
which He has created according to His will.
May He establish His kingdom in your lifetime and during your days,
and within the life of the entire House of Israel, speedily and soon;
and say, Amen.

May His great name be blessed forever and to all eternity.
Blessed and praised, glorified and exalted, extolled and honoured,
adored and lauded be the name of the Holy One, blessed be He,
beyond all the blessings and hymns, praises and consolations that
are ever spoken in the world; and say, Amen.

May there be abundant peace from heaven, and life, for us
and for all Israel; and say, Amen.

He who creates peace in His celestial heights,
may He create peace for us and for all Israel;
and say, Amen.

Leonard Cohen, You Want It Darker:

If you are the dealer, I’m out of the game
If you are the healer, it means I’m broken and lame
If thine is the glory, then mine must be the shame
You want it darker
We kill the flame

Magnified, sanctified
Be the holy name
Vilified, crucified
In the human frame
A million candles burning
For the help that never came
You want it darker

Hineni, hineni
I’m ready, my Lord

There’s a lover in the story
But the story’s still the same
There’s a lullaby for suffering
And a paradox to blame
But it’s written in the scriptures
And it’s not some idol claim
You want it darker
We kill the flame

They’re lining up to prisoners
And the guards are taking aim
I struggle with some demons
They were middle class and tame
I didn’t know I had permission
To murder and to maim
You want it darker

Hineni, hineni
I’m ready, my Lord

Magnified, sanctified
Be the holy name
Vilified, crucified
In the human frame
A million candles burning
For the love that never came
You want it darker
We kill the flame

If you are the dealer, let me out of the game
If you are the healer, I’m broken and lame
If thine is the glory, mine must be the shame
You want it darker

Hineni, hineni
Hineni, hineni
I’m ready, my Lord.

‘They’re lining up to prisoners / And the guards are taking aim’ (Leonard Cohen) … Jewish people being moved from the Warsaw Ghetto by German soldiers on 19 April 1943

Luke 10: 21-24 (NRSVA):

21 At that same hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit and said, ‘I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and the intelligent and have revealed them to infants; yes, Father, for such was your gracious will. 22 All things have been handed over to me by my Father; and no one knows who the Son is except the Father, or who the Father is except the Son and anyone to whom the Son chooses to reveal him.’

23 Then turning to the disciples, Jesus said to them privately, ‘Blessed are the eyes that see what you see! 24 For I tell you that many prophets and kings desired to see what you see, but did not see it, and to hear what you hear, but did not hear it.’

‘Blessed are the eyes that see what you see!’ (Luke 10: 23) (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Today’s Prayers (Tuesday 5 December 2023):

The theme this week in the new edition of ‘Pray With the World Church,’ the Prayer Diary of the Anglican mission agency USPG (United Society Partners in the Gospel), is ‘The Hope of Advent.’ This theme was introduced on Sunday.

The USPG Prayer Diary today (5 December 2023) invites us to pray in these words:

We offer up in prayer all the situations we have experienced or witnessed throughout the year to you Lord. Shine your light of hope into our lives.

The Collect:

Almighty God,
give us grace to cast away the works of darkness
and to put on the armour of light,
now in the time of this mortal life,
in which your Son Jesus Christ came to us in great humility;
that on the last day,
when he shall come again in his glorious majesty
to judge the living and the dead,
we may rise to the life immortal;
through him who is alive and reigns with you,
in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, now and for ever.

The Post-Communion Prayer:

O Lord our God,
make us watchful and keep us faithful
as we await the coming of your Son our Lord;
that, when he shall appear,
he may not find us sleeping in sin
but active in his service
and joyful in his praise;
through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Additional Collect:

Almighty God,
as your kingdom dawns,
turn us from the darkness of sin
to the light of holiness,
that we may be ready to meet you
in our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ.

Yesterday’s Reflection

Continued Tomorrow

‘You want it Darker’ … Leonard Cohen

Scripture quotations are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible: Anglicised Edition copyright © 1989, 1995, National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. http://nrsvbibles.org