26 September 2023

Modern design at
Euston seeks to make
heraldry relevant to
art and tastes today

Art and design on the London Underground has always caught my eye and ear (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

Patrick Comerford

Euston Station was the first mainline and underground station in London that I got to know in my teens and early 20s. In a typical year, more than 40 million journeys start or end at this station.

Back in the late 1960s and the 1970s, this was the station I arrived at in London from Lichfield or after taking the ferry from Dublin. In my teens, I hitch-hiked most of the time, and train travel was a luxury until I was in my 20s. By then, Euston had become familiar and was convenient. These days, this is the station I arrive at on trains from Milton Keynes.

Euston Station opened in May 1907 as part of the City and South London Railway’s extension from Angel Station. The architect Sidney Smith designed the entrance at Euston station.

A few months later, the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway opened its own Euston Station, with a surface structure designed by the architect Leslie Green. Despite having separate entrances, the two stations shared an underground ticket hall.

The station was closed 100 years ago, from 1922 to 1924, to allow tunnels to be enlarged in preparation for both branches of the Northern Line joining at Camden.

The station was rebuilt in the mid-1960s, when the surface mainline station was built. Most of the Underground work was designed to accommodate the Victoria line, which began calling at the station in 1968, just as I was about to get know the station.

Tom Eckersley’s designs and illustrations on the Victoria line platforms recall the Euston Arch (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

Art and design on the Underground have always caught my eye and ear, from the buskers to Tom Eckersley’s designs and illustrations on the Victoria line platforms in Euston of the Euston Arch that once stood as the gateway to the mainline station. The Doric Arch is also commemorated in the name of a pub between the station and Euston Square.

Going back to my teens, I have long had an interest in heraldry, and I remain curious about the abstract graphic patterns that I see regularly on the Northern Line (Charing Cross branch) platforms in Euston. They were created in the 1980s by the designers David Hamilton and Robin Cooper to represent the coat of arms of the Dukes of Grafton, whose family home is at Euston Hall in Sffolk. Grafton Regis, the village in the south Northamptonshire that gives its name to the title of the Dukes of Grafton, is about 13 km south of Northampton and 14 km north of Milton Keynes.

To many, heraldry must seem anachronistic, even feudal, if not irrelevant. Some of the conventions in heraldry are misogynist and crassly classist and need updating and modernisation. But the inspirational adaptations of the Euston or Grafton arms by Hamilton and Cooper in Euston Station show heraldry can still inform art and design.

David Hamilton and Robin Cooper created the abstract graphic patterns on the Northern Line platforms in Euston Station (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

The design in Euston Station is based on the coat of arms of Henry FitzRoy (1663-1690), 1st Earl of Euston, an illegitimate son of King Charles II and his mistress Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland.

The Duke of Grafton’s shield shows the Royal Stuart arms, with supporters, based on the royal lion and the Tudor greyhound. Across the shield is a baton sinister denoting illegitimate birth. The Earl of Euston was later given the title of Duke of Grafton and his coat-of-arms, seen on the platforms in Euston Station, is still used by his descendants.

The land on which the main line station is the situated was the property of the FitzRoy family. The family name and titles associated with it are to be found in the names of streets and squares in the surrounding area, including Euston Road, Euston Street, Euston Square, Cleveland Street, Fitzroy Square, Fitzroy Street and Grafton Street.

Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, was only 27 when he died in Ireland on 9 October 1690 of a wound received at the storming of Cork while leading William's forces, less than three months after the Battle of the Boyne.

His son, Charles FitzRoy (1683-1757), 2nd Duke of Grafton, was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1721 to 1724, and gave his name to Grafton Street and Duke Street in Dublin.

The V6 Grafton Street is a major local road in Milton Keynes key to the layout and urban form of the 'new city'. It starts beside Wolverton railway station in the north-west of Milton Keynes, between Wolverton and New Bradwell, and extends as far as Denbigh, where it provides access to the Stadium:mk and where it terminates in a roundabout with the H10 Bletcham Way, V4 Watling Street and Denbigh Road.

The Dukes of Grafton have given their names to Grafton Street in Dublin and in Milton Keynes (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

Daily prayers in Ordinary Time
with USPG: (121) 26 September 2023

Saint Michael’s Church, Denmark Street, Limerick … framed by the commercial buildings on Chapel Lane (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Patrick Comerford

We are in Ordinary Time in the Church Calendar, and this week began with the Sixteenth Sunday after Trinity (Trinity XVI, 24 September 2023).

The Calendar of the Church of England in Common Worship today (26 September) remembers the life and witness of Wilson Carlisle (1932), founder of the Church Army.

Before the day gets busy, I am taking some time this morning for prayer and reflection.

Later this week, the Church celebrates Saint Michael and All Angels (29 September). So my reflections each morning this week and next are taking this format:

1, A reflection on a church named after Saint Michael or his depiction in Church Art;

2, the Gospel reading of the day in the Church of England lectionary;

3, a prayer from the USPG prayer diary.

The monument to Patrick Arthur, who donated the site for Saint Michael’s Church (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Saint Michael’s Church, Denmark Street, Limerick:

Saint Michael’s Church, Denmark Street, Limerick, stands at the bottom of Chapel Lane in the heart of Limerick’s shopping and commercial area. Its name is a reminder of one of the five original parishes in the mediaeval city of Limerick: Saint John’s, Saint Mary’s, Saint Michael’s, Saint Munchin’s and Saint Patrick’s.

The Anglo-Normans probably built the first church in Limerick dedicated to Saint Michael the Archangel. This church stood on an island where the Abbey River spreads out above Baal’s Bridge. From old maps and drawings, this island was between Englishtown and Irishtown. This area was outside the city gate called West Watergate.

Saint Michael’s is first referred to in the Black Book of Limerick in 1205. It was originally a prebendal church, but by 1418 it was attached to the Archdeaconry of Limerick.

The church fell into disuse after the Reformation. By the early 17th century, it was in ruins, and it was totally dismantled at the time of Cromwell’s siege of 1651. The old graveyard at Michael Street is hidden behind buildings but was restored by the Limerick Civic Trust in 1986. The oldest headstone is in memory of Catherine Barry who died in 1766, aged 92.

In the Church of Ireland, the name of Saint Michael’s Church was used for a new parish church built for the Newtown Pery area in 1844, replacing Saint George’s Church on George’s Street (now O’Connell Street).

In the post-Reformation Roman Catholic Diocese of Limerick, Saint Michael’s was a joint parish with Saint John’s until 1704, when Father Murtagh O’Hehir became the first priest in a new parish.

The Arthur family, who were involved in developing Arthur’s Quay and the Georgian houses built in the area in the mid-18th century, owned the land on which the church was built. Instead of building houses on the site, Patrick Arthur donated the land for the original Penal-era church.

Work on building Saint Michael’s began in 1779. The Revd Thady Lynch laid the foundation stone in 1779, building work was completed in 1781 and the church was opened on Saint Michael’s Day, 29 September 1781.

The church was enlarged in 1805, and Daniel O’Connell held some of his rallies there. A church bell was acquired and was first rung on 1 January 1815.

Saint Michael’s Church was rebuilt in 1881 at a cost of £7,400 to designs by the Limerick-based architect Martin Morris (1823-1901). While the church was being built, Mass was celebrated in the Town Hall from summer 1881 until Christmas Day 1882.

When the new church was being built, human remains were found. They were thought to be bodies of soldiers who fought in defence of the city in the siege of Limerick in 1690. They were reburied under the Sacred Heart altar in 1881.

Saint Michael’s is a fine Italianate church, with Romanesque architectural features. It is a T-plan limestone church, facing north-west with double-height side aisles and three apses to the south-east chancel elevation. The earlier, Penal-era church forms part of the south transept of the present church.

Inside, Saint Michael’s is plain and simple, but in the past it was known as the ‘chapel of statues’ because of the large numbers of statues inside. Most of these statues were removed in the post-Vatican II years.

The High Altar stands on the site of the old sacristy from 1779. A side altar shows a scene from the Last Supper and may have once been part of the old High Altar.

There are two large plaques in the north transept. The first plaque is in memory of Father Patrick Hogan and was commissioned after his death in 1838. It was designed in the style of a 15th century memorial by William Bardwell (1795-1890), the architect who also designed Glenstal Castle for the Barrington family.

The second monument is to Patrick Arthur, and was erected by the people of the parish after he died in 1779. Before the church renovations in 1881, there was a flagstone over his grave in the centre of the church.

A pair of carved stone fonts at the entrance to south transept date from ca 1720. One font shows the Archangel Michael putting the Dragon in chains. The other font shows Saint Christopher fording the river with the Christ Child – although some descriptions also say this could be the Virgin Mary holding the Christ Child, or Saint Elizabeth holding Saint John the Baptist.

The church has a four-stage bell tower and a three-bay three-storey presbytery. The bell tower is capped by a striking gilt figure representing the Archangel Michael vanquishing Satan.

From 1781 to 1816, the priests of the parish lived in Robert Street, which was next to the sacristy. Later, the priests also lived in Sexton Street. Edward Thomas O’Dwyer, who was a curate in the parish (1875-1886), later became Bishop of Limerick (1886-1917).

The parish has changed greatly since the church was built the 18th century. Saint Michael’s was once described as ‘the biggest parish in Munster.’ But the parish was divided and subdivided to form new parishes as the city of Limerick grew and expanded.

Saint Michael’s ceased being a mensal parish with the bishop as its parish priest in 1973, and the first parish priest was the Very Revd Michael Manning.

The present area of the parish is now roughly from Cecil Street to Bank Place and the population of the parish is around 1,000. It is now the smallest parish in Limerick, and is in the heart of the central shopping area of the city. As a place of worship and a feature in the streetscape, it is a significant building, adding a religious element to a largely commercial and retail area.

Limerick is now home to about 10,000 Poles, and more than 500 people attend the Polish Mass in Saint Michael’s every Sunday. The Cantate Deo choir sings in the church once a month and is part of this thriving Polish community.

Inside, Saint Michael’s Church is plain and simple (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Luke 8: 19-21 (NRSVA):

19 Then his mother and his brothers came to him, but they could not reach him because of the crowd. 20 And he was told, ‘Your mother and your brothers are standing outside, wanting to see you.’ 21 But he said to them, ‘My mother and my brothers are those who hear the word of God and do it.’

Father Patrick Hogan’s monument in Saint Michael’s Church was designed by the architect William Bardwell (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Today’s Prayer:

The theme this week in ‘Pray With the World Church,’ the Prayer Diary of the Anglican mission agency USPG (United Society Partners in the Gospel), is ‘Flinging open the doors.’ This theme was introduced on Sunday by the Revd Anthony Gyu-Yong Shim, Diocese of Daejeon, Korea.

The USPG Prayer Diary today (26 September 2023) invites us to pray:

We pray for the Diocese of Daejeon and the Anglican Church in Korea. May we learn from and be inspired by their service to each other and to their communities.

The Collect:

O Lord, we beseech you mercifully to hear the prayers
of your people who call upon you;
and grant that they may both perceive and know
what things they ought to do,
and also may have grace and power faithfully to fulfil them;
through Jesus Christ your Son our Lord,
who is alive and reigns with you,
in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, now and for ever.

The Post Communion Prayer:

Almighty God,
you have taught us through your Son
that love is the fulfilling of the law:
grant that we may love you with our whole heart
and our neighbours as ourselves;
through Jesus Christ our Lord.

A carved stone font shows the Archangel Michael putting the Dragon in chains (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Yesterday’s Reflection

Continued Tomorrow

Scripture quotations are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible: Anglicised Edition copyright © 1989, 1995, National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. http://nrsvbibles.org

A carved stone font showing Saint Christopher carrying the Christ Child (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)