Saturday, 16 November 2019
During my visit to Bratislava last week, I spent some time visiting the Chatam Sofer Memorial, a unique Jewish heritage site. This is revered by many Orthodox Jews as the most sacred burial ground and place of pilgrimage in Europe.
The Chatam Sofer Memorial is the sole remaining part of the centuries-old Jewish cemetery that was destroyed in 1943 when a nearby tunnel was constructed.
Only the most important section of the cemetery, with 23 graves surrounding the Chatam Sofer’s tomb, was preserved as an underground compound.
However, the Chatam Sofer Memorial should not be visited as a museum, and the site is only accessible by special arrangement through the Jewish community in Bratislava with the understanding that visitors are intending to pray and are pilgrims.
This is a Jewish burial shrine erected over the graves of prominent rabbis and scholars who are highly esteemed in Jewish tradition. The memorial is regularly visited by Orthodox Jewish pilgrims from around the world.
But who was the Chatam Sofer?
Rabbi Moses or Moshe Schreiber (1762-1839), a renowned rabbi and scholar, is known as the Chatam Sofer (‘Seal of the Scribe’), an acronym for Chiddushei Toiras Moishe Sofer.
He was a teacher to thousands and a powerful opponent of the Reform movement in Judaism, which was attracting many people from Jewish communities in the Austrian Empire and beyond in the early 19th century. As the Chief Rabbi of Bratislava, then known as Pressburg, he maintained a strong Orthodox Jewish perspective through communal life, first-class education, and uncompromising opposition to Reform and radical change.
He was born in Frankfurt am Main on 26 September 1762 (7 Tishrei 5523). He studied at the yeshiva or rabbinical school in Mainz and later became a student of Rabbi Nathan Adler in Frankfurt.
He left Frankfurt in 1782 for Straznice, now in the Czech Republic, and there he became head of the local yeshiva and married his first wife, Sarah Yerwitz.
Following their engagement, Rabbi Sofer’s family learned that Sarah was a widow who did not have children with her first husband. His family pressed him to break the engagement. Rabbi Sofer wrote to his teacher Rabbi Adler for advice but no response was received before the wedding date. Rabbi Sofer took this as a heavenly sign that the wedding should take place and married Sarah over his family’s objections.
Rabbi Sofer served as rabbi in Prostejov, now in the Czech Republic, from 1794, and in Mattersdorf, now Mattersburg in Austria, from 1796. He accepted an invitation of the Jewish community of Pressburg – Bratislava – in 1806 to become its Chief Rabbi. He and his family lived at the end of Zamocka Street, where the Hotel Ibis now stands.
Rabbi Sofer remained in Bratislava for 33 years. There he served as av beth din or chief judge of the rabbinical court, and he became one of the most respected authorities in halakha (Jewish law).
The Chatam Sofer’s yeshiva in Bratislava became one of the most prominent centres of traditional Jewish learning in Europe. With 400 students at its peak, it was the largest yeshiva since Babylonian times.
In Hungary alone, the Chatam Sofer counted about 100 rabbis as his disciples. They went on to defend the ideological position of their charismatic teacher.
He was strictly orthodox, and spearheaded the traditionalist response to the modernising changes in Jewish society known as haskalah (‘enlightenment’).
He expected that removing anti-Jewish legal barriers, civil emancipation and the acculturation of Jews would lead to their assimilation, which he dreaded. His motto, He-chadash asur min ha-Torah (‘the new is prohibited by the Torah’), summarised his ideological position, in which he rejected the introduction of changes into Judaism.
This became a core principle of what became known as Orthodox Judaism, and the Chatam Sofer is considered one of the founding fathers of Orthodox Judaism.
After his first wife Sarah died childless, the Chatam Sofer married his second wife Sarah in 1812. She was the widowed daughter of Rabbi Akiva Eger of Posen (Poznan). They were the parents of 10 children, three sons and seven daughters.
The Chatam Sofer died on 3 October 1839 (25 Tishrei 5600). He was succeeded as Chief Rabbi of Pressburg (Bratislava) by his eldest son, Abraham Samuel Benjamin Schreiber (1815-1871), known as the Ketav Sofer, and was later followed by his grandson Simcha Bunim Schreiber (1842-1906), known as the Shevet Sofer, and great-grandson Akiva Schreiber (1878–1959), the Da’at Sofer, the last of the family to serve as rabbi in Bratislava.
The Chatam Sofer published very little during his lifetime. His posthumously published works include about 1,200 responsa or rabbinical rulings, novellae on the Talmud, sermons, biblical and liturgical commentaries, and religious poetry. He is often cited as an authority in Orthodox Jewish scholarship, and many of his responsa are required reading for many candidates for semicha or rabbinic ordination.
His Torah chiddushim or original Torah insights inspired a new approach to rabbinic commentary, and some editions of the Talmud contain his emendations and additions.
His second son, Rabbi Simon Schreiber Shimon Sofer (1820-1883) was the Chief Rabbi of Mattersdorf and later the Chief Rabbi of Kraków. He founded the Machzikei Hadass organisation with the Chassidic Rabbi Yehoshua Rokeach of Belz in 1871.
This was the first effort of Haredi Jews in Europe to create a political party. It was part of the developing identification of the traditional Orthodoxy as a self-defined group and a force among Orthodox Jews to challenge the rising modernising forces among Galician Jewry. This organisation has given its name to the Machzikei Hadass Synagogue at Rathmore Villas in Terenure, Dublin.
Meanwhile, the Pressburg Yeshiva became the most influential yeshiva in Central Europe, training hundreds of future leaders of Hungarian Jewry. The yeshiva continued to function until World War II, but was relocated to Jerusalem under the leadership of the Chatham Sofer’s great-grandson, Rabbi Akiva Sofer.
How did the grave of the Chatam Sofer in Bratislava become such a unique site?
The cemetery where the Chatam Sofer is buried dates back to the 17th century, when Jews were allowed to settle below the slopes of Bratislava Castle on the estate of Count Pálffy and his family. The cemetery served as the burial place of the Bratislava Jewish community until 1847.
After 1847, the Jewish community used the Orthodox and Neolog cemetery, on Zizkova Street nearby. The Old Cemetery was well maintained until 1942-1943, when it was demolished during the construction of a tunnel. Most of the graves were exhumed and reburied at the Orthodox cemetery in a communal grave behind the beit tahara.
Only the most precious section of the cemetery, where famous Bratislava rabbis were buried – 23 graves surrounding the Chatam Sofer’s tomb – was preserved on the original site.
This section was enclosed by a concrete shell and covered with a concrete roof. The site became an underground compound, and some people in Bratislava began calling this the Chatam Sofer Mausoleum. Even during the Communist era, it was visited by Orthodox pilgrims and other Jews.
For the people of Bratislava, the site became a mysterious Jewish presence during a period when Jewish heritage was not valued by the authorities and two synagogues in Bratislava and the entire old Jewish neighbourhood were razed to the ground.
The city tramline was built in 1982 and a tram stop was established over the compound.
After decades of neglect, the whole site was redeveloped in 2000-2002, and the gravestones were restored. The redevelopment project was initiated by the New York-based International Committee for the Preservation of Gravesites of Gaonai Pressburg, and was supported by the Mayor and Municipality of Bratislava.
The work on the project entailed great sensitivity, as special rules apply to Jewish cemeteries. The municipality relocated the tram tracks, and the former cemetery compound was delineated and later fenced off.
The architect Martin Kvasnica designed a striking new complex that adheres to the strict requirements of the halakha (Jewish law) as well as to the highest standards of contemporary architecture.
A major challenge was providing an access for the kohanim or cohens, the descendants of Temple priests, who are prohibited from visiting a cemetery by Jewish law. To resolve this, visitors access the site along a raised platform, which is elevated above the cemetery grounds. After passing through an evocative black entry corridor structure, they enter the visitors’ hall and then the prayer hall for kohanim.
Only then can visitors descend into the main cemetery space, with the graves of the Chatam Sofer and the other prominent rabbis. Glass plates symbolising matzevot or gravestones lost in the destruction of the cemetery are visible in the interior and also mark the memorial compound from the outside. They are reminders that the site is a Jewish cemetery, although it disappeared in the 20th century, when much of Jewish civilisation was destroyed.
The Chatam Sofer Memorial is owned by the Bratislava Jewish Community and is part of the Slovak Jewish Heritage Route.
The Chatam Sofer Memorial includes 23 graves. The prominent rabbis of Bratislava buried here include:
Mordechai Mochiach (d 1729)
Moshe ben Meir Charif of Lemberg (d 1758)
Akiba Eger the Elder (ca 1720-1758)
Yitzak Halevi Landau of Dukla (d 1762)
Meir ben Saul Barby of Halberstadt (ca 1725-1789)
Meshulam ben Shimson Igra of Tysmenitsa (1742-1801)
Moshe Schreiber – the Chatam Sofer (1762-1839)
Daniel Prostitz Steinschneider (1759-1846)
The Tales from the Vienna Woods is a waltz by the composer Johann Strauss II (1825-1899), written just over a century and a half ago, in 1868. Although Strauss was baptised in the Roman Catholic Church, he was born into a prominent Jewish family. Because the Nazis had a particular penchant for Strauss’s music, they tried to conceal and even deny the Jewish identity of the Strauss family.
However, the stories of Vienna’s Jews cannot be hidden, and many of those stories from Vienna are told in the exhibits in the Jewish Museum in its two locations, at the Palais Eskeles on Dorotheergasse and in the Misrachi-Haus in Judenplatz.
Rather than describe both museums in detail in one or two blog postings, I have decided over the next few days or weeks to re-tell some of these stories, celebrating a culture and a community whose stories should never be forgotten.
One of the exhibitions in the Jewish Museum on Dorotheergasse tells the story of the Ephrussi family, who are descended from Chaim Ephrussi (1793-1864), also known as Joachim or Charles Joachim Ephrussi, who arrived in Odessa from Berdychiv in west Ukraine, around 1830, and soon had interests in the grain trade, banking and other businesses.
Joachim Ephrussi established his business interests in Vienna around 1856, and the family soon spread throughout the world, with strong business, commercial and cultural interests around the globe.
Charles Ephrussi began collecting Japanese art in the late 19th century. He acquired the now famous Netsuke collection from an art dealer in Paris in 1899, and gave it to his cousin Viktor Ephrussi in Vienna.
But the collection was confiscated by the Nazis in Vienna in 1938 and Viktor Ephrussi escaped from Vienna in March 1939, having been forced by the Gestapo to sign away his properties.
Viktor Ephrussi arrived in England, where his daughter, Elisabeth de Waal (1889-1991), had made her home. The family settled in Tunbridge Wells, and there Viktor died on 12 March 1945. In his will, he revoked signing away his properties in Vienna.
After her father’s death, Elisabeth de Waal made a new life for herself and her family in England, and she became a member of the Church of England when she married Hendrick de Waal. She died in Monmouth in 1991.
Their eldest son, the Very Revd Viktor de Waal, was ordained an Anglican priest and later became the Dean of Canterbury (1976-1986). He now works with refugees.
One of the portraits in the exhibition is a portrait of Dean de Wall by Marie-Louise von Motesiczky (1979) in oil on canvas and on loan from Canterbury Cathedral.
Dean de Waal says that when this portrait ‘was finished (and of course I had not been allowed to glimpse it before) was really very revealing. Though of a Christian clergyman, it shows my Jewish roots, to the extent that it appeared positively rabbinic.’
Meanwhile, Viktor Ephrussi’s Netsuke collection of Japanese art found its way back to Japan in 1950 when it was restored to his son Ignaz (Iggie) Ephrussi (1906-1994), who had moved to Tokyo in 1948, and who lived in Japan until he died in 1994.
The collection was brought to England by Elisabeth’s grandson, the English potter Edmund de Waal. He began to reconstruct the story of the Ephrussi family, which he tells in his book, The Hare with Amber Eyes.