16 February 2023
Did Peter the Painter ever
exist, and did he fight at
the Siege of Sidney Street?
I was writing yesterday about Max Levitas and his role in the Battle of Cable Street in 1936. But the Siege of Sidney Street is almost as well known in the East End of London.
Painter House, Peter House and Siege House are three housing blocks on the corner of Commercial Road and Sidney Street. The unusual names were chosen in Tower Hamlets to recall the events surrounding the Sidney Street Siege in 1911.
But who was Painter the Painter?
And, did he ever exist?
The Siege of Sidney Street – also known as the Battle of Stepney – came to an end on 3 January 1911 and was one of the most notorious events at the time in the East End. It was one of the worst days in the history of British policing and was considered to be the biggest criminal event in the East End since ‘Jack the Ripper’.
The siege began three weeks earlier, on 16 December 1910. It was a Friday night and Shabbat evening in a neighbourhood with a high proportion of Jewish residents. But noise of knocking and drilling was coming from behind HS Harris, a local jewellery shop, at 119 Houndsditch. The noise was brought to the attention of the local policeman on patrol and he reported it to Bishopsgate Police Station.
Seven uniformed officers and two detectives, armed only with their whistles and truncheons arrived on the scene and entered Exchange Buildings, which housed a number of refugees from Latvia, where the 1905 revolution had been put down with exceptional violence.
Their experience in Latvia convinced the men that the police were armed and ready to kill or torture them if they were captured. Shooting started as the police entered Exchange Buildings. A police sergeant was killed immediately and four others were injured.
The assailants, one woman and three men, escaped. Within days, two of the four policemen who were injured died, and there was public outcry at the death and injury of the policemen.
When police were called to a house where a shot man had died from his injuries, they found him dead and a considerable amount f guns and ammunition, including the gun used to shoot the three policemen, and the body of George Gardstein, an anarchist from Latvia. Three others had fled the scene.
The police were soon looking for an unidentified woman, Fritz Svaars and a Russian called Peter Piatkov, also known as ‘Peter the Painter’ as that was his trade. On New Year’s Day 1911, police were told that Svaars and another man called Jacobs were holed up at 100 Sidney Street, next to Sidney Street Synagogue.
The Siege of Sidney Street soon began and became one of the first news stories captured on film. Winston Churchill, then the Home Secretary, seized the political opportunity of media attention, arrived at Sidney Street and became involved in operations.
The police were outgunned, Churchill sent for the army, and a detachment of Scots Guards arrived from the Tower of London. Eventually, the building on Sidney Street caught fire. Two bodies were found, but neither was a woman’s body and no one knew what had happened to the man known as Peter the Painter.
In time, seven other of the supposed robbers and their alleged accomplices were brought to trial, but all were acquitted or had the charges against them dropped. Churchill was heavily criticised for his intervention, but he seems to have revelled in the publicity, which strengthened his image as a tough advocate of law and order.
The core members of the gang were identified as Latvian or Russian refugees, and some of them were ethnically Jewish. Ya’akov Peters, whose flat may have been used by gang members, later returned to Russia, and after the Bolshevik Revolution he became a founder of Cheka, the forerunner of the KGB.
After supposedly escaping the Sidney Street Siege, Peter the Painter became an anti-hero in the East End. He was never caught, and there are questions about whether he took part in the siege, or even whether he actually existed.
Many east European immigrants arrived in London in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and settled mostly in the East End. Ethnic groups joined together in gangs, and many immigrants were involved in radical politics and activism. They often stole in order to fund their politics.
The Conservative government in 1905 passed the Aliens Act – the foundation of modern immigration legislation. This measure sought to curb the right of ‘pauper aliens’ to settle in Britain, and of ‘persons of notoriously bad character.’
Churchill’s extraordinary intervention at Sidney Street seems to have been calculated to project his media image. In April 1911, four months after his appearance at Sidney Street, and enjoying the publicity it had brought him, he introduced a bill designed to further curb immigration. Thankfully for Jewish refugees yet to arrive in Britain, it was never passed.
Peter the Painter was a nickname for an unknown figure, possibly named Peter Piaktow, or Piatkov, Pjatkov or Piaktoff. He used several aliases, including Schtern, Straume, Makharov and Dudkin or Janis Zhaklis. But no firm details are known of his background and none of the supposed biographical ‘facts’ about is reliable.
The type of gun which Peter the Painter allegedly used at Sidney Street, a German Mauser C96 pistol, was sometimes called a Peter the Painter after him, particularly in Ireland during the War of Independence and later.
Based on research in the KGB archives, Philip Ruff, a historian of anarchism, suggested in 1988 that Peter the Painter might be Ģederts Eliass. He was a Latvian artist involved in the 1905 Revolution in Russia and was living in exile in England during the time of the Sidney Street Siege. He returned to Riga after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917.
More recently, however, Philip Ruff has identified Peter the Painter with another Latvian far-left activist, Jānis Žāklis, also known as Janis Zhaklis or Zhakles. Zhaklis was a member of the Latvian Social Democratic Workers’ Party in 1905. He was involved in aiding the escape of Fritz Svaars from prison in Riga. Zhaklis associated with Eliass in exile in Finland, where they were involved in the robbery of the Russian State Bank in Helsinki.
Zhaklis broke with the Social Democrats and became an anarchist, but it is unclear what happened to him after 1911.
Tower Hamlets Borough Council named two tower blocks on the corner of Commercial Road Sidney Street Peter House and Painter House in 2006, and named a third Siege House, although Peter the Painter was only involved in a minor capacity in the events, and was not present at the siege.
Plaques on the towers say they were built by Tower Hamlets Community Housing and named after Peter Piaktow, who was known as Peter the Painter, the ‘antihero’ of the Sidney Street Siege in 1911.
A local councillor and the Metropolitan Police Federation protested against the names of the towers, saying that the killer should not be recognised. Nearby, Wexford House stands on the actual site of 100 Sidney Street, where the gang holed up and which caught fire.
Praying in Ordinary Time
with USPG: 16 February 2023
These weeks, between the end of Epiphany and Ash Wednesday, are known as Ordinary Time. We are in a time of preparation for Lent, which in turn is a preparation for Holy Week and Easter.
Before today becomes a busy day, I am taking some time for prayer and reflection early this morning.
In these days of Ordinary Time before Ash Wednesday next week (22 February), I am reflecting in these ways each morning:
1, reflecting on a saint or interesting person in the life of the Church;
2, one of the lectionary readings of the day;
3, a prayer from the USPG prayer diary, ‘Pray with the World Church.’
The calendar of the Episcopal Church in the US today remembers Bishop Charles Todd Quintard (1824-1898), a physician and Bishop of Tennessee.
Charles Todd Quintard was born in Stamfort, Connecticut, on 22 December 1824, a son of Dr Isaac Quintard who was descended from Huguenots.
Quintard studied medicine in New York University, becoming an MD in 1847. He was a physician in Athens, Georgia, and a parishioner at Emmanuel Episcopal Church, from 1848 to 1851. He moved to Memphis, Tennessee, to teach at Memphis Medical College. With the support of James Hervey Otey, the Bishop of Tennessee, he studied for ordination, and he was ordained deacon on 1 January 1855 and priest on 6 January 1856.
Like Bishop Otey, Quintard was of the Southern branch of the old High Church or Hobartian group of Episcopalians. He identified with the Oxford Movement, and was deeply moved by the writings of Tractarians such as John Keble, Edward Pusey and John Henry Newman.
He was briefly the Rector of Calvary Church, Memphis (1856-1857), and then the Rector of the Church of the Advent, Nashville (1857). In 1864, he organised Saint Luke’s Church in Atlanta.
Although he opposed slavery, and despite his initial pro-Union stance, he was a surgeon and a chaplain in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, when he compiled the Confederate Soldiers’ Pocket Manual of Devotions (1863) and Balm for the Weary and the Wounded (1864).
Quintard succeeded James Hervey Otey as Bishop of Tennessee in October 1865. His consecration as the South’s first post-war bishop was viewed as a sign of healing within the Episcopal Church.
He built up the Diocese of Tennessee and the University of the South at Sewanee, Tennessee, where he founded the School of Theology.
Quintard believed that his mission was to make the Episcopal Church in Tennessee ‘a refuge for all – the lame, halt and blind as well as the rich.’ He opposed all barriers, from racially-segregated congregations to pew rentals, he established programmes to help poor people and helped to found Hoffman Hall, Fisk University, Nashville, as a seminary for African Americans.
Quintard received honorary doctorates from Columbia College (Doctor of Divinity, 1866) and Cambridge (Doctor of Laws, 1867). He was in Meridian, Georgia, for health reasons when he died on 16 February 1898. He was 73 years old.
Mark 8: 27-33 (NRSVA):
27 Jesus went on with his disciples to the villages of Caesarea Philippi; and on the way he asked his disciples, ‘Who do people say that I am?’ 28 And they answered him, ‘John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets.’ 29 He asked them, ‘But who do you say that I am?’ Peter answered him, ‘You are the Messiah.’ 30 And he sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him.
31 Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 32 He said all this quite openly. And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. 33 But turning and looking at his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, ‘Get behind me, Satan! For you are setting your mind not on divine things but on human things.’
USPG Prayer Diary:
The theme in the USPG Prayer Diary this week is ‘Bray Day.’ This theme was introduced on Sunday by Jo Sadgrove, USPG’s Research and Learning Advisor, who shared the challenges of uncovering USPG’s archives.
The USPG Prayer Diary today invites us to pray in these words:
We pray for all who seek to educate and inform. May our places of learning be open to all, offering new pathways and new vision.
Mighty God, we bless your Name for the example of your bishop Charles Todd Quintard, who persevered to reconcile the divisions among the people of his time: Grant, we pray, that your Church may ever be one, that it may be a refuge for all, for the honour of your Name; through Jesus Christ, who with you and the Holy Spirit lives and reigns, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.
Scripture quotations are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible: Anglicised Edition copyright © 1989, 1995, National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. http://nrsvbibles.org
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