Tuesday, 8 October 2019
During these High Holy Days, the most solemn and sacred time of the year in the Jewish calendar, I have been writing about the synagogues of Dublin, both past and present. Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר), also known as the Day of Atonement, the holiest day of the Jewish year, begins at sundown tonight [8 October 2019] and ends at sunset tomorrow [9 October 2019]. This is the holiest and most solemn of the High Holy Days in the Jewish year.
The central themes of this holy day are atonement and repentance, and it is observed with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, and many Jews spend most of the day at synagogue services.
According to Jewish tradition, God writes each person’s fate for the coming year into the Book of Life on Rosh Hashanah or New Year and waits until Yom Kippur to seal the verdict. During the intervening Days of Awe, Jews seek to amend their behaviour and seek forgiveness for wrongs done against God and against other people.
The evening and day of Yom Kippur are set aside for public and private prayer and confessions of guilt.
Tonight is known as Kol Nidrei night because of this evening’s Kol Nidre prayer which is charged with so many emotions and so many memories for Jews everywhere. The words are in Aramaic, not Hebrew, and it is sung to a haunting, traditional melody that has inspired many composers and singers.
There is a tradition that during the Spanish Inquisition, when the conversos or Jews who were forced to convert to Christianity under the threat of death, remained faithful to Judaism at heart, and tried to observe Jewish practices in their homes.
These conversos would gather in the evening shortly before Yom Kippur began in their secret synagogues. Before beginning the Yom Kippur services, they would tearfully and emotionally pray to God, asking for forgiveness for all the public statements they made in the previous year which were contrary to Jewish doctrine.
This is supposedly also the reason why Kol Nidre is prefaced with the statement: ‘… by the authority of the heavenly tribunal and by the authority of the earthly tribunal, we hereby grant permission to pray with those who have transgressed.’
However, the Kol Nidre prayer predates the Inquisition by at least 500 years. It is said with great devotion as the opening prayer of the holiest day of the year and not because of its content.
Kol Nidre is an Aramaic declaration recited in the synagogue before the beginning of the evening service on every Yom Kippur. Although, strictly speaking, Kol Nidre is not a prayer, it has many emotional undertones and creates a dramatic introduction to Yom Kippur. The term Kol Nidrei refers not only to the actual declaration but is also used as the name for the entire Yom Kippur service on this evening.
The name ‘Kol Nidre’ comes from the opening words, meaning ‘all vows.’ It is a pledge that annuls any personal or religious oaths or prohibitions made to God by the person for the next year, so as to avoid the sin of breaking vows made to God that cannot be or are not upheld.
Kol Nidrei was introduced into the synagogue liturgy despite the opposition of some rabbis, although it was expunged from the prayer book by many communities in western Europe in the 19th century.
Before sunset on the eve of Yom Kippur, the congregation gathers in the synagogue, the Ark is opened and two people take out two or three Torah scrolls. They then take their places, one on each side of the cantor, and the three, forming a symbolic beth din or rabbinical court, recite:
By the authority of the Court on High
and by authority of the court down here,
by the permission of One Who Is Everywhere
and by the permission of this congregation,
we hold it lawful to pray with sinners.
The last word, usually translated as sinners or transgressors, is used in the Talmud (Niddah 13b; Shabbat 40a) for apostates or renegades and in Talmud of Jerusalem (Ketubot 7,31c) for someone whose offenses are of such magnitude that he is no longer recognised by the Jewish community.
The cantor then chants the passage beginning with the words Kol Nidre with its touching melodic phrases, and, in varying intensities, repeats twice, giving a total of three declarations, these words:
All vows we are likely to make,
all oaths and pledges we are likely to take
between this Yom Kippur and the next Yom Kippur,
we publicly renounce.
Let them all be relinquished and abandoned,
null and void,
neither firm nor established.
Let our vows, pledges and oaths
be considered neither vows nor pledges nor oaths.
The leader and the congregation then say together three times:
May all the people of Israel be forgiven,
including all the strangers who live in their midst,
for all the people are in fault. (Numbers 15: 26)
The leader then says:
O pardon the iniquities of this people,
according to thy abundant mercy,
just as thou forgave this people
ever since they left Egypt.
The leader and the congregation say together three times:
The Lord said,
‘I pardon them according to your words.’ (Numbers 14: 20)
The Torah scrolls are then placed back in the Ark, and the customary evening service begins.
Kol Nidrei is not a prayer; indeed, it makes no requests and it is not addressed to God. Instead, it is a declaration before the Yom Kippur prayers begin. It follows the juridical practice of requiring three men as a tribunal, the procedure beginning before sundown, and of the proclamation being announced three times.
It is believed that Kol Nidrei was added to the liturgy of Yom Kippur 10 days after Rosh Hashana, the Jewish New Year, because that service is much more solemn, because the Day of Atonement is attuned to the theme of repentance and remorse and because Yom Kippur services are better attended. Kol Nidre also includes an emotional expression of penitence that sets the theme for the Day of Atonement.
Rabbi Meir ben Samuel made an important change to the wording of the Kol Nidre in the early 12th century, changing the original phrase ‘from the last Day of Atonement until this one’ to ‘from this Day of Atonement until the next.’
The older text is usually called the Sephardic version, but the two versions are sometimes found side by side. Because it is traditional to recite Kol Nidrei three times, some Sephardic communities and a small number of Ashkenazic communities recite both versions.
Kol Nidrei is performed before Yom Kippur begins, and should be recited before sunset, since dispensation from a vow may not be granted on the Sabbath or on a feast-day, unless the vow refers to one of these days. However, Sephardic communities wait until nightfall, when Yom Kippur officially begins, before reciting Kol Nidre.
There is a tradition that makes Kol Nidre more than a technical vow-annulment procedure. Instead, by releasing these vows God is being asked to reciprocate in kind. In the event that he has pledged not to bring the redemption just yet, in the event that he made an oath to bring harsh judgments on his people in the following year, God is asked to release these vows and instead grant a year of happiness and redemption.
For most of the 19th century, the Mary’s Abbey Synagogue off Capel Street remained the principal synagogue in Dublin, having opened in 1836 as the successor to the Stafford Street (1822-1836).
In the 1880s and 1890s, a number of smaller synagogues opened in the area between the South Circular Road and Portobello that became known as ‘Little Jerusalem,’ and by 1890 communal relations were strained in Dublin.
By the late Victorian period, social conditions in the area around the Mary’s Abbey Synagogue were deteriorating, and centre of gravity of the Jewish population of Dublin was shifting towards the southern rims of the city at the South Circular Road and beyond, putting the synagogue beyond a sabbath’s walk distance of an increasing number of families.
The council of the Dublin Hebrew Congregation decided to buy a site at 37 Adelaide Road and build a new synagogue. The building committee included Martinus de Groot, then president of the Mary’s Abbey Synagogue.
This was the first purpose-built synagogue in Ireland and cost over £5,000 to build. Donations for the new building came from Jews in Britain, including the Rothschilds, and from Jews and Gentiles throughout Ireland, and the balance of £3,000 was raised through a mortgage.
The synagogue was designed in a vaguely Byzantine style, with seating for a congregation of 300 in the main body, and for another 150 in the galleries, by the Dublin-based architect John Joseph O’Callaghan (ca 1838-1905).
O’Callaghan was born in Co Cork and received his earliest architectural training in the office of Sir John Benson. He then moved to Dublin to join the office of Deane and Woodward.
After working on the Museum Building in Trinity College Dublin, O’Callaghan was sent to Oxford in 1856 to act as clerk of works for the erection of the Oxford Union Society debating room, which was completed the following year. In Oxford, he took advantage of the opportunity to study mediaeval architecture.
He continued to work with the Deanes for another 12 years before setting up his own office in Merrion Row around 1871. He later worked from Harcourt Street and Nassau Street.
O’Callaghan practised without a partner for over 30 years. He was an unwavering advocate of the Gothic style until the end of his life. Although he never designed a cathedral, most of his work was designing churches and church buildings, owing much to the school of William Burges (1827-1881).
His other works include the Lafayette Building, Westmoreland Street, Dublin; Saint Raphael’s College, Loughrea, Co Galway; Saint Joseph’s Church, Mountmellick, Co Laois; Saint Brigid’s Church, Clara, Co Offaly; the O’Brien Institute, Marino, Dublin; Dolphin House, Essex Street, Dublin; Saint Mary’s Church, Haddington Road, Dublin; and the Glimmer Man, a public house in Stoneybatter, Dublin.
O’Callaghan was elected a Fellow of the Royal Institute of Architects of Ireland (FRIAI) in 1869. He was a founding member of the Architectural Association of Ireland in 1872, and was elected its first president. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (FRSAI) in 1873.
He died on 2 November 1905 at the age of 67. His children included the architects Lucius O’Callaghan and Bernard O’Callaghan.
The final service in Mary’s Abbey Synagogue was held on 3 December 1892, with a closing sermon by the Chief Rabbi, Dr Hermann Adler. The new synagogue on Adelaide Road opened the following day. The ceremony of consecration began with a procession led by Dr Adler, who said in his sermon: ‘Ireland is the only country in the world which cannot be charged with persecuting the Jews.’
The new synagogue was soon dubbed ‘the English shul’ by the Eastern European Jewish families in ‘Little Jerusalem’ because of its tendency to follow the style and custom of synagogues in Britain.
Caldeck and Dunlop supervised the erection of Mikva and baths at the synagogue in 1915 to designs by Benjamin Septimus Jacobs of Hull. The building was materially enlarged in 1925, when it was extended to provide school facilities for Jewish children.
The synagogue had 120 seat-holders or subscribing members in 1895, and this number continued to climb steadily throughout the first half of the 20th century, reaching 365 in 1944. However, as the Jewish community continued to move out to the southern suburbs, including Terenure, Rathfarnham and Churchtown, numbers declined from the 1960s on.
The synagogue celebrated its centenary in 1992, but by the 1990s, the numbers attending on a Saturday morning usually stood at 40 to 50.
The last wedding took place in the synagogue in 1999 when Taryn Enoch and Andrew Barling were married. The Dublin Hebrew Congregation voted to close the synagogue on Adelaide Road and amalgamate with the synagogue on Rathfarnham Road, Terenure. The president of the synagogue, Mark Simmons, said it was an almost unanimous vote. The building was sold, most of it was demolished, apart from the façade, and the site was redeveloped as offices.
The Dublin Hebrew Congregation formally merged with the Terenure Hebrew Congregation in 2004 and the new merged congregation assumed the name Dublin Hebrew Congregation.
Tomorrow, 11, Chevrah Tehillim Synagogue, Lombard Street
Yesterday, 9, Camden Street Synagogue