21 November 2022
My grandfather’s eldest brother, James Comerford (1853-1915), his wife Helena (Lena) née Donovan, and their family lived for most of their lives in the Clanbrassil Street area of Dublin. For generations of Dubliners, this was the heart of ‘Little Jerusalem’, an area that once had a large number of Jewish families who first arrived as immigrants and refugees from Poland, Ukraine, the Baltics and the former Russian Empire.
This was the ‘Little Jerusalem’ that 100 years ago provided many of the characters that pop up throughout James Joyce’s Ulysses, first published in 1922 but set on 16 June 1904.
It was said in my family that in those days you could walk along Clanbrassil Street and every second person you met was either Jewish or a member of the extended Comerford family.
In 1911, my great-uncle and great-aunt were living upstairs at 82 Lower Clanbrassil Street. On the ground floor, No 82 was Rubinstein’s kosher butcher shop, opened in 1905 by Myer Rubinstein. The Rubinstein family, instead of living above the shop, lived at 22 Emorville Avenue, off South Circular Road, one of the many streets in ‘Little Jerusalem’. Their daughter Hilda and Joseph Woolf were married in Greenville Hall or Dolphin’s Barn Synagogue, on 6 August 1933, with the Revd B Yaffe among the officiants.
As the 20th century moved on, Myer Rubinstein’s son, Barney Rubinstein, had a shop on the corner of Lombard Street corner, Oche Woolfe’s shop was on the opposite corner, Beila Erlich was further along the street, while Janey Goldwater and her husband Isaac Goldwater each had a shop, one in poultry and one in other produce.
The business at No 82 was continued by another son of Myer Rubinstein, Philly Rubinstein, who is credited by Ray Rivlin in Jewish Ireland, a social history with finding the site for Edmondstown Golf Club in the 1940s.
I have eaten in Rubinstein’s restaurant in Kraków and most people know the name of the cosmetics entrepreneur Helena Rubinstein (1870-1965), who was born in Kraków. Perhaps the Rubinsteins of Clanbrassil Street were part of a long-tailed, extended European Jewish family, like the Rappaport, Horowitz and Jaffe families.
Clanbrassil Street was Dublin’s main Jewish shopping street throughout the first half of the 20th century. There were 23 kosher shops on the street in 1943, but this figure steadily declined after World War II to 16 by the end of the 1950s, nine by the end of the 1960s, only five were open by the end of the 1970s, and two in the 1980s. Rubinstein’s shop at No 82 closed in 1979, and Beila Erlich’s was the last of the Jewish shops on Clanbrassil Street.
My grandfather Stephen Comerford (1867-1921) and his elder brother, my great-uncle James, seem to have been close despite a 14-year age gap. James and Lena were the parents of three sons and two daughters, my father’s first cousins, and many of them lived in the Clanbrassil Street or ‘Little Jerusalem’ area.
Their second child, Catherine Mary, was born on 21 April 1890, and when she was baptised in Saint Kevin’s on 25 April 1890 my grandfather Stephen Comerford was her godfather. She married Michael O’Brien of 82 Lower Clanbrassil Street in Saint Kevin’s on 23 November 1931.
Back in the time of the 1911 census, when my great-uncle James was living at No 82, the floors above Rubinstein’s shop were shared by the Comerford with the Coleman and Joffe family. Mary Coleman was a sister of James and Stephen Comerford, and her husband Francis Coleman was a first cousin of Thomas A Coleman (1865-1950), the architect, of Ashlin and Coleman, who was born at 61 Lower Clanbrassil Street in 1865.
The other family sharing No 82 above Rubinstein’s shop with the Comerford and Coleman families in 1911 were the Joffe family. Isaac Joffe, a 58-year-old Jewish shopkeeper from Russia and his Russian-born Jewish wife, Hannah (56).
I have tried to trace Isaac Joffe and his family in recent years, but with few results. He is probably the Isaac Jaffe, dealer, of 32 Lower Clanbrassil Street who died six years later on 9 July 1917 after two strokes at the age of 66.
Undoubtedly he was related to another Isaac Jaffe – perhaps a first cousin – living in the same area at this time. Isaac Bernard Jaffe (1863-1937), was born in Kovno or Kaunas in Lithuania in 1863, and moved with his wife Annie and their daughters Zelda and Mabel in the 1890s first to Glasgow and then to Dublin. He lived for much his life at 30 Emorville Avenue, Dublin, and other Jaffe family lived at 22 Emorville Avenue and at 22 St Kevin’s Parade at the same time.
His daughter Sarah Mollie (Mabel) Jaffe (1891-1974) was born in Akmene, Lithuania, on 30 August 1891. Zelda married Abraham Muscovitz in 1909 and Isaac Bernard Jaffe officiated at Sarah’s wedding to Jacob (Jack) Brazil (1893-1972) in the Greenville Hall or Dolphin’s Barn Synagogue in Dublin on 23 July 1919.
As the Rev B Yaffey, he appears as the reader of the congregation in the Jewish Year Book until he died Isaac Bernard Jaffe died at Emorville Avenue on 29 January 1937 at 75. The witness at the registration of his death was Harry Aitkins (? spelling) of 87 Lower Clanbrassil Street.
Sarah and Jack Brazil moved first to Gateshead and then to London and were the parents of five children, including Harry Victor (Herschel) Brazil (1920-1986), who became a rabbi in Queen’s, New York, and a mashgiach or kosher inspector for a hotel chain.
There were other Jaffe, Joffe and Yaffey families in Ireland at this time, including families living in Kenilworth Park, Dublin, and in Limerick, Waterford and Belfast, and they all seem to have been closely inter-related.
The Jaffe family in Limerick were also part the Lithuanian branch of the Jaffe family. Fleeing the Russian Empire at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, they bought tickets for New York City, but were cheated, being instead dropped off at Cork.
Dr Henry Norman Jaffé (1898-1969), who left Limerick in 1904 at the height of what is often labelled the ‘Limerick Pogrom,’ was the grandfather of the popular historian Simon Sebag Montefiore and his brother, the writer and historian Hugh Sebag Montefiore. But their great-great-grandparents, Benjamin and Rachel Jaffe, remained in Limerick and were living in Catherine Street in 1911, along with their great-grandparents, Marcus and Leah Jaffe, who also lived on Catherine Street. A Jaffe family continued to run a business in Cecil Street, Limerick for some decades.
Henry Jaffe moved first to Newcastle upon Tyne and later thrived as a doctor in Nottingham. He married Miriam Woolf (1896-1993), whose family escaped from Poland and would later include two Lords Chief Justice. Laurence Olivier and his wife Vivien Leigh were among the guests at their home, The Hollies, in Nottingham.
Their son, Dr Gabriel Jaffe (1923-2016), was also a GP, practising in Bournemouth, where he was also a town councillor (1967-1995) and the Mayor of Bournemouth (1977-1978), the town’s first Jewish mayor.
Their daughter, the actress and novelist Phyllis April Jaffé (1927-2019), studied at Rada and at 18 starred in ‘The Sacred Flame’ at Birmingham Rep. She lived in Oxford Street, London, during World War II, while working at the Jewish Quarterly and at her aunt Rose’s bookshop. After a V2 hit Selfridges, she found Rose in bed covered in broken glass and thought she was dead until she sat up, unscathed.
In 1952, April married the psychotherapist Dr Stephen Eric Sebag-Montefiore (1926-2014), a great-grandson of the banker Sir Joseph Sebag-Montefiore (1822-1903), nephew and heir of the wealthy philanthropist Sir Moses Montefiore.
Stephen Sebag-Montefiore’s mother, the former Audrey Mabel Rose Haldin (1899-1984), was a grand-daughter of Sir Herbert Leon (1850-1926) of Bletchley Park, which I visited last week.
Isaac Joseph Jaffe (1807-1890) of Hamburg was the owner of Jaffe Bros, a linen import-export firm, with branches in Belfast, Dundee, Hamburg, and Leipzig. He had 11 children in his first marriage and four more in his second.
One of Isaac Joseph Jaffe’s children, Edgar Jaffe, was an economics professor in Heidelberg, and married Else von Richthofen, sister of DH Lawrence’s wife, Frieda. He was an associate of the sociologist Max Weber and was the Socialist Finance Minister of Bavaria in the 1920s.
Another son, Daniel Jaffe, was the father of Sir Otto Jaffe (1846-1929), twice Lord Mayor of Belfast. Otto Jaffe was born in Hamburg in 1846 and was brought to Belfast by his parents in 1852. He was educated in Belfast, Hamburg and Switzerland.
After working in New York from 1865 to 1877, he became chief director of the Belfast firm. He married Paula Hertz in 1879, and they were the parents of two sons, Arthur Daniel and William Edward Berthold Jaffe.
He was life president of the Belfast Hebrew Congregation, a Justice of the Peace and consul in Belfast for Germany. He was Lord Mayor of Belfast in 1899 and 1904, and was knighted in Dublin Castle in 1900.
World War I gave rise to anti-German sentiment in Britain and Ireland and he felt forced to resign as an Alderman on Belfast City Council in 1916 when he was almost 70. He and his wife moved to London, where he died in April 1929. Lady Jaffe was too ill to attend his funeral and died a few months later, in August 1929.
Otto Jaffe erected the Jaffe Memorial Fountain in Victoria Square, Belfast, to commemorate his father. The fountain was moved to the Botanic Gardens in 1933, but it was restored and returned to Victoria Square in 2008.
The Jewish Encyclopaedia describes the Jaffe or Joffe family as a family of rabbis, scholars and communal workers. Members of the family include numerous famous rabbis, ‘court Jews,’ Talmudic scholars, scientists, business figures, academics and politicians. Family members are found in Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ireland, Britain, Italy, Canada, Israel and the US.
According to legend, the family was descended from the 12th century Jew Samuel ben Elhanan, who claimed descent from the biblical commentator, Rashi, who claimed to be a 33rd-generation descendant of Johanan HaSandlar who in turn claimed descent from King David through the Kalonymos or Kalonymus family, a prominent Jewish family with a Greek name in Italy, mostly in Lucca and in Rome.
The name Kalonymos (αλώνυμος) means ‘good name,’ perhaps a translation of the Hebrew ‘Shem-Tov.’ Traces of the family in Italy are said to be found as early as the second half of the eighth century. Of course, none of these claims is clearly documented.
The main branch of the family claims descent from the 12th century Tosafist, Elhanan Jaffe of Dampierre (died 1184), and through him from Moses Jaffe of Bologna, who died in 1480. He was a Polish rabbi who was forced to live in Italy, where he served as the Av Beit Din of several communities.
His son Abraham settled in Bohemia and became prefect of Polish Jews in the early 16th century. He died in 1535. A descendant of this Abraham was the celebrated Rabbi Mordechai Jaffe, author of Lebushim, an important code of rabbinical law.
The descendants of Mordecai Jaffe of Prague in western Europe included prominent business leaders, politicians, scientists, academics, journalists and jurists. Along with Sir Otto Jaffe, they included the Israeli general and politician Avraham Yoffe, Joel Joffe, Baron Joffe, and Josef Joffe, publisher and editor of Die Zeit. In eastern Europe, his descendants who held key rabbinic positions included Mordechai Jaffe (1742-1810), who founded the Lechovitch Hasidic dynasty, Mordecai-Gimpel Jaffe (1820-1891) and Dov Yaffe (1928-2017).
A member of the Jaffe family who cut an admirable and heroic figure in recent years was the Lanour life peer, Joel Goodman Joffe, Baron Joffe (1932-2017), a South African-born lawyer whose father was born in Lithuania. He worked as a human rights lawyer 1958-1965, and was the defence attorney of the leadership of the ANC at the 1963-1964 Rivonia Trial, helping to represent Nelson Mandela and his co-defendants.
After the Rivonia trial he was refused entry to Australia as ‘undesirable’ and he moved to Britain in 1965. In Britain, he set up Hambro Life Assurance with Sir Mark Weinberg and chaired Oxfam in 1982-2001. He was made a life peer in 2000 with the title Baron Joffe of Liddington, and proposed the Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill, a private member’s bill, in 2003.
Lord Joffe appeared along with the surviving defendants and defence team at the Rivonia Trial in a documentary film, Life is Wonderful in 2017. He died later that year on 18 June 2017.
Rubinstein’s shop and 82 Clanbrassil Street have long been demolished. But it would be interesting to find out, in time, how these Jaffe, Joffe and Yaffe families are related to Isaac and Hannah Joffe, refugees from Lithuania, who shared the residential space above Rubinstein’s shop with my Great-Uncle James Comerford and his family.
This is the final week in Ordinary Time this year in the Calendar of the Church, the week between the Feast of Christ the King and Advent Sunday.
Before this day gets busy, I am taking some time this morning for reading, prayer and reflection.
I was reflecting on the theme of Christ the King yesterday. For the rest of this week I am reflecting each morning in these ways:
1, One of the readings for the morning;
2, a reflection or thought from the Greek writer Nikos Kazantzakis;
3, a prayer from the USPG prayer diary, ‘Pray with the World Church.’
Luke 21: 1-4 (NRSVA):
1 He looked up and saw rich people putting their gifts into the treasury; 2 he also saw a poor widow put in two small copper coins. 3 He said, ‘Truly I tell you, this poor widow has put in more than all of them; 4 for all of them have contributed out of their abundance, but she out of her poverty has put in all she had to live on.’
Nikos Kazantzakis, 1:
Last month marked the 65th anniversary of the death of the Greek writer and philosopher Nikos Kazantzakis in Freiburg, Germany, on 26 October 1957.
Nikos Kazantzakis (1883-1957) is a giant of modern Greek literature, and he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature on nine separate occasions. His books include Zorba the Greek, Christ Recrucified, Captain Michalis (also published as Freedom or Death), and The Last Temptation of Christ (1955). He also wrote plays, travel books, memoirs and philosophical essays such as The Saviours of God: Spiritual Exercises.
His fame spread in the English-speaking world because of the film adaptations of Zorba the Greek (1964) and The Last Temptation of Christ (1988).
For Cretans, his outstanding works are his semi-autobiographical but posthumous Report to Greco (1960) and his Freedom and Death (1946), set in Iraklion during the struggle against Ottoman oppression. Freedom and Death first appeared in Greek as Captain Michailis, and the eponymous hero is the author’s own father. The characters are the people of 19th century Iraklion, the settings are its streets, churches, fountains, mosques, and houses.
His epic version of the Odyssey occupied Kazantzakis for 10 years. But his other work includes poems, plays, travel books, encyclopaedia articles, journalism, translations, school textbooks and a dictionary.
In his later years, Kazantzakis was banned from entering Greece for long periods, and he died in exile in Germany on 26 October 1957. When his body was brought back from Freiburg, the Greek Orthodox Church refused to allow any priests to provide rites or ceremonies in Athens.
Western writers often claim Kazantzakis was denied an Orthodox burial because of his unorthodox views, or because of The Last Temptation. But Aristotle Onassis provided a plane to take his coffin to Iraklion, and Kazantzakis laid in state in the Cathedral of Aghios Minas. Those who came to pay tribute included the Archbishop of Crete and the resistance leader and future prime minister, George Papandreou.
My friend Manolis Chrysakis, the proprietor of Mika Villas, a popular destination in Piskopiano for Irish tourists, denies his great-uncle was ever excommunicated by the Greek Orthodox Church, and insists he was never disowned by the Church of Crete, which is semi-independent and under the direct jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
Manolis and his family in Iraklion and Piskopiano are proud of their kinship with Nikos Kazantzakis: they are descended from the sister-in-law of ‘Kapetan Mihailis,’ the eponymous hero of the Kazantzakis novel based on his father’s adventures and published in English as Freedom and Death.
His tomb is marked only by a simple wooden cross framed by a flowering hedge and an undecorated gravestone with the pithy epitaph:
Δεν ελπίζω τίποτα.
Δε φοβούμαι τίποτα.
– Νίκος Καζαντζάκης
I fear nothing,
I hope for nothing,
I am free.
– Nikos Kazantzakis
whose Son Jesus Christ ascended to the throne of heaven
that he might rule over all things as Lord and King:
keep the Church in the unity of the Spirit
and in the bond of peace,
and bring the whole created order to worship at his feet;
who is alive and reigns with you,
in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, now and for ever.
Stir up, O Lord,
the wills of your faithful people;
that they, plenteously bringing forth the fruit of good works,
may by you be plenteously rewarded;
through Jesus Christ our Lord.
God the Father,
help us to hear the call of Christ the King
and to follow in his service,
whose kingdom has no end;
for he reigns with you and the Holy Spirit,
one God, one glory.
The theme in the USPG Prayer Diary this week is ‘Prophetic Voice of the Nation.’ This theme was introduced yesterday by Bishop Matthew Mhagama, from the Diocese of South-West Tanganyika in the Anglican Church of Tanzania.
The USPG Prayer Diary invites us to pray today in these words:
Almighty God, we thank you for the service of missionaries. May we remember their work and grant us the ability to do mission well.
Scripture quotations are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible: Anglicised Edition copyright © 1989, 1995, National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. http://nrsvbibles.org