25 December 2016
Reflecting on the meaning of Christmas
in an icon of the Nativity from Rethymnon
So you have been to Midnight Night Mass, or you have been to Church this morning for Christmas Day. Christmas dinner may be over, the children may be playing with their toys, someone is flicking the channels on the television, and you have decided to surf the net for a little while this evening. Perhaps you may even be wondering how you can find a few minutes to think about the meaning of Christmas once again before the evening comes to an end.
To help our reflections on the meaning of Christmas and the Incarnation of Christ, I have turned to an Icon of the Nativity from the work of a Cretan iconographer whose work I have come to know and appreciate in recent years.
My friend Alexandra Kaouki (Αλεξανδρα Καουκι), who has a studio on Melissinou Street, just beneath the slopes of the Venetian fortezza in Rethymnon, is one of the most interesting icon writers in Crete today. She works on modern, bright and vibrant icons and frescoes that are true to the tradition and inherited styles, but with contemporary relevance and impact. During my visit to Crete this year, I watched her work on her new icon of the Dormition, commissioned for the Feast of the Dormition [15 August].
In the past week, she has reposted on her Facebook page her interpretation of the traditional Orthodox icon of the Nativity of Christ, dating from 2011 and in the Church of Aghios Symeon in the village of Ano Mera on the Cycladic island of Mykonos.
The five main characters or sets of characters in the Christmas story – Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph, the Shepherds and the Angels, and the Wise Men – are seen in the icon of the Nativity, which gives a very different take on the Christmas story than the ones found on popular Christmas cards in northern Europe.
In the Orthodox tradition, the icon of the Nativity of Christ shows the Creator of the Universe entering history as a new-born babe, and the impact of his birth on the natural life of the world.
The background of the icon traditionally displays an inhospitable world, the world since our expulsion from Paradise. In the centre of the icon are the Virgin Mary, the central and disproportionately large figure, who is seen resting in a cave, and the Christ Child as a baby in a manger wrapped in swaddling clothes. Around the icon, we can see details from the Christmas story.
The icon is rich with theological symbolism.
The Christ Child
The little helpless figure in swaddling clothes represents the complete submission of Christ to the physical conditions governing the human race.
The earth provides him with a cave. The animals watch over him in silent wonder and we humans offer him one of us, the Virgin Mother. His manger is like a coffin and his swaddling clothes are very much like the grave clothes, for this child is born to die.
Far from the Christmas-card image of being born in a sweet, cosy stable, surrounded by cuddly animals and adoring fans, Christ is born in a dark cave. The craggy rocks above the cave form the shadow of the cross on which he dies.
One very old version of the Christmas story has it that Christ was born in a cave outside Bethlehem, which is why the icon shows him that way, in the midst of jagged rocks and pitch dark. Christ has come into the world to save it, but that means he has come into a place of darkness and danger. He is in the depths. His birth anticipates his death, just as the gift of myrrh (a spice used in burials) points us to Christ’s death and burial.
So, while the nativity is a joyful event, it carries a serious message. Jesus Christ is God with us, God come to live the life of a human being on earth. But he has also come to die, to set us free from our slavery to evil, poverty and injustice. As one writer puts it: “God became a human child so that we might become children of God.”
The Virgin Mary
The Virgin Mary is known in Orthodoxy as the Theotokos, the God-bearer or Mother of God. Although the Virgin Mary is the most dominant figure in the icon, she is not the most important. Here she is seated, but in some versions of this icon she is shown kneeling, still concerned.
The Virgin Mary is right at the centre of the Christmas story, which is why she is at the centre of this icon. It was her ‘yes’ spoken to the angel who told her she would give birth to Christ which set the whole story in motion. It was her belief that God could do what he promised that made it all possible. And it was she who gave birth and laid her son in a feeding trough for cattle, due to overcrowding in Bethlehem.
In this icon, we see the Virgin Mary lying on a sort of long, red cushion – it almost looks like a bean bag – with the Christ Child in his makeshift cot by her side. She is pulling her cloak around her for warmth, and perhaps she is trying to catch some sleep after the exhaustion of giving birth. The icon-writer presents Virgin Mary like this to remind us that the birth of Christ – like any birth – was hard work and that it was a human event. Jesus Christ was fully human. The way the Virgin Mary wraps herself in her cloak and turns to get some sleep tells us that.
But Jesus Christ was more than just a human being, as we are told in the words of the nativity narratives in the Gospels, and through the images in this icon.
The sky salutes the Christ Child with a star, the light of wisdom. This is a sign that Christ came for everyone. Some icons have three rays from the star, representing the Holy Trinity.
The shepherds and the Wise Men or Magi bring their gifts as signs that Christ has come for everyone.
Saint Luke’s Gospel has a special emphasis on the poor and disadvantaged, on people living on the margins of society. While Saint Matthew’s Gospel focuses on the Wise Men who travelled from the East, Saint Luke’s spotlight falls on these working men, who hear the news about the birth of Christ from heaven itself.
The shepherds are on the right-hand side of the icon. One lone young shepherd looks up and is blessed by an angel looking down on him. Below this shepherd, the sheep drink in a river, a reminder that Christ is the Good Shepherd. In some icons a shepherd is shown wearing a wreath as he plays his flute, showing the joy of the Good News. Saint Luke is the only evangelist to mention the shepherds in his Gospel.
Christ later says: ‘I have come to bring good news to the poor.’ The shepherds in the story remind us of God’s love for those who are forgotten and left behind in our world.
The Wise Men
The Wise Men are on the left-hand side of the icon. Sometimes they are shown on icons on horseback, their faces turned up looking for the star that has led them to Bethlehem. In those icons, the uphill angle of the horses tells of the long, hard journey of the wise men, and how important the event was to them. Perhaps they alone in this story have realised something of what was truly happening. And the speed of their horses tells us of the urgency and danger in their part of the story.
The wise men are also part of the Christmas story, and they bring not just their strange and exotic gifts but they also bring the world of politics and military power into the story. King Herod, a violent and cunning ruler who was paranoid about holding on to his power, is alarmed by his unexpected visitors. Eventually, he orders the horrific massacre of all new-born baby boys in Bethlehem in an attempt to liquidate any rival to his throne, no matter how young he may be.
They show how the story of the incarnation of Christ was rooted in the real world of political corruption and intrigue, with a ruler who was prepared to kill anyone who stood in his way. It is this real world of oppression, death and danger that Christ has come to save.
Below the centre of the icon is a tree, representing the Jesse Tree in Old Testament prophecy, which says that a shoot will sprout from the stump of Jesse, the father of King David: ‘A shoot shall sprout from the stump (tree) of Jesse and from his roots a bud shall blossom. The spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him’ (Isaiah 11: 1-2).
The ox and ass
Christ comes into the world that does not recognise him for who he is. The ox and the ass near the centre of the icon are also referred to in an Old Testament prophecy: ‘The ox knows his owner, and the donkey his master’s crib, but Israel does not know, my people do not understand’ (Isaiah 1: 3). In some icons, including this one, the ox and ass are near the Christ child, providing warmth from their breath.
The Righteous Joseph is shown away from the Christ Child and the Virgin Mary, to the bottom left. This is to show that he was not involved in the miracle of the Incarnation of the Son of God, but that he was the protector of the Virgin Mary and Jesus Christ.
Saint Joseph reminds us of a very human dilemma in the Nativity stories: how could the Virgin Mary be pregnant? It was a scandalous thing (see Matthew 1: 18-24).
From Saint Matthew’s Gospel, it is clear that Saint Joseph did not believe the Virgin Mary’s explanation of how she had conceived. It was only after a dream that he accepted the Virgin Mary as his wife.
In the icon, Saint Joseph has head turned down from facing the Virgin Mary, listening to his doubts and fears. He cuts an isolated figure, right at the bottom of the picture, and he looks thoroughly fed up with everything. And yet, despite any lingering doubts he may have harboured, Saint Joseph has an important place in the whole icon. Doubt can help us get honest with God and with ourselves.
The tempting old man
The man speaking to Saint Joseph represents the devil bringing new doubts to Saint Joseph. The devil suggests that if the infant were truly divine he would not have been born in the human way. This argument, presented in different forms, keeps on reappearing throughout the history of the Church, and is the foundation of many heresies.
In the person of Saint Joseph, the icon discloses not only his personal drama, but the drama of all humanity, the difficulty of accepting that which is beyond reason, the Incarnation of God. But the Virgin Mary in the centre, from her reclining position at the centre of the icon, looks at Saint Joseph as if trying to overcome his doubts and temptations.
The angels in the icon are glorifying God, tending to the action, and ministering. They are announcing the Good News to the shepherds, or singing. One angel in the middle group is kneeling or bowing in worship before Christ, lying in his cave, while the angels to the left on the icon are standing like a choir, singing.
Some icons of the Nativity also show at the bottom right the women who were midwives, telling us that Christ was born in the normal way and would have needed washing, as a regular human baby does.
Prayer and reflection
Spend a few moments in thought and prayer while you are at your computer or laptop. If it is now night-time, dim or turn off the lights in your room. If it is possible, light a candle or night-light and think of the Virgin Mary and her ‘yes’ to God. Remember her open-hearted faith.
If you have some of those Christmas cards you have received close to hand, take three or four of them and pray for the people who have sent them to you. Or perhaps pray for those you are thinking of most at the moment.
Here is a prayer to pray for yourself and others:
May God shield us
May God fill us
May God keep us
May God watch over us.
May God bring us
To the land of peace
To the country of the king
To the peace of eternity.
Praying at Christmas with USPG,
(1): 25 December 2016
Christmas Day has arrived. Throughout Advent, I have been praying each morning using for my reflections the prayer diary of the Anglican mission agency, USPG (United Society Partners in the Gospel), and I have decided to continue to use this prayer diary for my morning prayers and reflections today, Christmas Day, and during the Twelve Days of Christmas that follow.
This week, the prayers in the USPG Prayer Diary focus on the needs of mothers and children in Palestine and Israel.
In an article in the prayer diary, Johannes Zwig, a former USPG mission companion in Jerusalem, and now a lecturer on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and a Holy Land tour leader, writes:
‘Mohammed’s eyes are big and black. His ears stick out a bit. While laughing, two small teeth appear. He is indeed a cute boy. But his mother is really concerned about the health of her ninth child. At birth his weight was only 2kg and, a year later, he was still severely under-weight.
‘His parents decided to travel from their home in Dura, near Hebron in the West Bank, to Caritas Baby Hospital in Bethlehem, a distance of about 40k. The journey is not a huge enterprise, but in an area under military occupation, with many army checkpoints, this can be an undertaking of two or more hours.
‘At the hospital, close to the Israeli separation wall, Mohammed underwent many tests. Food intolerance has been excluded. Now the doctors are waiting for more results before providing treatment.
‘Caritas Baby Hospital, founded in 1952, provides 82 beds. There are 240 Christian and Muslim employees making the hospital the second biggest employer in Bethlehem. The Christian institution treats more than 30,000 children each year – mainly for diseases related to poverty. ‘The hospital is a place of hope,’ according to former member of staff Reto Mischler.’
The USPG Prayer Diary:
Sunday 25 December 2016, Christmas Day:
Lord, today you were born homeless and laid in a manger.
Fill is with compassion for all in need today.
Help us to respond to your most generous gift,
of Jesus Christ, with loving service to others.
On this day, we also light the fifth and final candle in the centre of the Advent Wreath, marking the birth of Christ in Bethlehem:
Holy God, your only son was born with no home and laid in a manger;
fill us with compassion for all in need today.
Bless your church as it works for dignity, healing and peace
across the world, and give us generous hearts
to respond to your most generous gift,
of Jesus Christ our Lord.
Readings (Revised Common Lectionary, the Church of Ireland, Holy Communion):
Isaiah 9: 2-7; Psalm 96; Titus 2: 11-14; Luke 2: 1-14 (15-20).
The Collect of the Day:
who made this most holy night
to shine with the brightness of your one true light:
Bring us, who have known the revelation
of that light on earth,
to see the radiance of your heavenly glory;
through Jesus Christ our Lord.
Post Communion Prayer
God our Father,
in this night you have made known to us again
the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ:
Confirm our faith and fix our eyes on him
until the day dawns
and Christ the Morning Star rises in our hearts.
To him be glory both now and for ever.
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