01 April 2019
The Dunbrody famine ship on the Quay in New Ross is one of the major tourist attractions in Co Wexford, and also gives its name to the eye-catching Dunbrody Inn on the Quay.
But few visitors to New Ross probably realise that both take their name from Dunbrody Park, a few miles further south on the Hook Peninsula. I was also interested in calling in to see Dunbrody when I was in the area earlier in March because of the interesting link between this house and Comberford Hall.
‘Three knocks are always heard at Comberford Hall before the death of a family member.’ This is one of the many vignettes and stories from history and folklore recorded by Kate Gomez in her recent book, The Little Book of Staffordshire (Stroud: The History Press, 2017).
The story was first recorded, as far as I know, in 1686 by the 17th century historian Robert Plot (1640-1696), of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, who records this superstition about ‘the knocking before the death of any of ... the family of Cumberford of Cumberford in this County; three knocks being always heard at Cumberford-Hall before the decease of any of that family, tho’ the party dyeing be at never so great a distance.’
The knock came at the door of Comberford Hall for George Augustus Chichester, when he risked his inheritance through his gambling addictions. To pay off his debts, her married the illegitimate daughter of a moneylender, and Fisherwick Hall was inherited instead by his brother Lord Spencer Stanley Chichester.
The Manors of Comberford and Wigginton, including lands in Hopwas and Coton, were bought 230 years ago in 1789 by Arthur Chichester (1739-1799), 5th Earl of Donegall. Within a year, Lord Donegall had raised £20,000 from the banker Henry Hoare, using the manors and lands of Comberford and Wigginton as collateral security.
Eventually, however, the Chichester family, would be crippled by the gambling debts of a profligate son, they found it impossible to pay off this loan, and they were be forced to sell Comberford Hall and the manorial rights and lands that went with it.
Arthur Chichester was educated at Eton and Oxford, and became the 1st Marquess of Donegall in 1791. Through the properties he inherited from his father, he was the greatest landowner of his day in Ireland. His estates included 11,000 acres at Dunbrody, Co Wexford, almost 90,000 acres in Co Antrim, 160,000 acres in Co Donegal, the whole town of Belfast, and the townland of Ballynafeigh in Co Down, totalling over quarter of a million acres.
However, he never lived on his Irish estates. Instead, Donegall made his principal residence in Staffordshire, tearing down the Skeffington family’s old Tudor manor house at Fisherwick, close to Comberford, replacing it with a vast Palladian mansion set in a park of 4,000 acres, all designed and constructed by Capability Brown. At Fisherwick, he also collected an expensive library and rare specimens of natural history.
Lord Donegall is said to have rebuilt Comberford Hall, replacing the original half-timbered Tudor manor house dating back to the late 15th century, at the same time as he rebuilt neighbouring Fisherwick Hall. However, Mrs Valerie Coltman, who lived at Comberford Hall, told me she believes it is more likely that Comberford Hall was rebuilt more than 70 years earlier in 1720.
Lord Donegall also gave his name to Donegal House on Bore Street, Lichfield, although Donegal House was built in 1730 by a local merchant James Robinson.
The Staffordshire historian Stebbing Shaw notes in 1798 that Lord Donegall was still Lord of Comberford Manor, along with Wigginton, Hopwas, Horton, Tynmore and Fisherwick.
Donegall died in 1799, and Comberford Hall and his other Staffordshire estates, including Fisherwick, now heavily mortgaged, passed to a younger son, Lord Spencer Stanley Chichester (1775-1819), who also inherited Dunbrody Abbey, Co Wexford, along with a townhouse in Saint James’s Square, London, 20,000 acres on the Inishowen Peninsula in Co Donegal, the townland of Ballymacarrett in Co Down, the lands through which the newly-built Lagan Canal passed, and the family’s Gainsborough portraits.
Lord Spencer Stanley Chichester was born on 20 April 1775. He was 20 when he married Lady Harriet Stewart (ca 1770-1850), a daughter of the Earl of Galloway, on 8 August 1795.
But by then, Lord Spencer Chichester’s gambling debts were catching up on him. In 1801, he sold some of his lands in Lichfield, Alrewas, Whittington, Wichnor, Comberford, Coton, Tamworth and Hopwas, to the Lane family of King’s Bromley.
Through his brother’s patronage, he became the MP for Carrickfergus, Co Antrim in 1802, although he continued to live at the family house at Fisherwick, which was left to him by his father. By 1805, he was seeking legal opinion on his title to the Manor of Comberford and Wigginton. Eventually, he was forced to sell Fisherwick, where the great house was demolished.
He was re-elected for Carrickfergus in 1806, although he had been asked to stand for Co Wexford. However, he resigned from Westminster in March 1807, and appears to have spent the rest of his days on the estates he had inherited in Co Wexford. His mortgages on Comerford Hall were foreclosed in 1809, and it passed to the Peel family.
If Chichester’s profligacy lost his family Comberford Hall and their other estates near Lichfield and Tamworth in Staffordshire, it is surprising how they managed to hold on to Dunbrody in Co Wexford. Lord Spencer Stanley Chichester built Dunbrody House as a country house, and at times it has been known as Dunbrody Park or Harriet’s Lodge, named after his wife, Lady Anne Harriet Stewart.
He had built Dunbrody House before he died in Paris 200 years ago on 22 February 1819.
Dunbrody House is a nine-bay, two-storey country house with a dormer attic, built on an E-shaped plan with two-bay two-storey advanced end bays centred on a single-bay two-storey breakfront, originally single-bay three-storey on a rectangular plan. It was partially rebuilt in 1909-1910.
The house has a deliberate alignment, maximising the scenic vistas overlooking gently rolling grounds, with Waterford Harbour as a backdrop. It has a near-symmetrical frontage centred, on a truncated breakfront. The diminishing scale of the windows on each floor produces a graduated visual impression and the decorative timber work embellishes the roofline.
The architectural historian Bence-Jones says it has the appearance of a 20th-century house with a vaguely ‘Queen Anne’ flavour.
The house was inherited by his eldest son, who became Lord Templemore, and the house and title passed through successive generations to Dermot Richard Claud Chichester (1916-2007), 5th Baron Templemore.
During World War II, as a captain with a cavalry regiment, he was reported missing in action and was believed to have been killed in action. He had been captured in Libya in November 1942 during the North African Campaign, and he remained a prisoner of war in Italy until he escaped in June 1944. He was promoted major that year. His elder brother, Arthur, was been killed in 1942 when he was an officer in the Coldstream Guards.
Dermot Chichester succeeded his father as the 5th Baron Templemore in 1953. In 1975, he also succeeded a distant cousin to become the 7th Marquess of Donegall, being the descendant of the 1st Baron Templemore, grandson of Arthur Chichester, 1st Marquess of Donegall.
He continued to live at Dunbrody House and died on 19 April 2007. His titles then passed to his son, Patrick Chichester. But by then Dunbrody had been sold in 1996. The house was renovated in 1999-2001, and is now a luxury boutique country house hotel. It was named Luxury Country House of the Year in 2016.
Dunbrody House is now owned and operated by Kevin and Catherine Dundon, and the Blue Book country house has scooped international accolades for its ‘authentic charm, relaxed ambiance and top class dining experience.’
Dunbrody House is known for its fine food and a friendly, relaxed service combined with luxury accommodation. Set in 300 acres of parkland on the Hook Peninsula, it also offers a cookery school with a range of courses, a luxury boutique Spa, a Sunday market, Sunday Jazz brunch and a traditional Irish pub, ‘The Local.’
I am in Saint Mary’s Cathedral in Limerick this afternoon, working with a film crew on a television production on the River Shannon and the Sea, and discussing our responsibilities as Christians for the waters or life.
As we stand at the west door of the cathedral, looking out at the River Shannon as it flows out to the sea, I think of those in the past like Saint Brendan who set out from the mouth of the river in mission to the world out there.
Like Adam and Eve, he left his Eden, watered by the Rivers, in partnership with God in creation, in trust, in hope.
The Anglican Communion has identified and agreed on Five Marks of Mission:
● To proclaim the Good News of the Kingdom
● To teach, baptise and nurture new believers
● To respond to human need by loving service
● To transform unjust structures of society, to challenge violence of every kind and pursue peace and reconciliation
● To strive to safeguard the integrity of creation, and sustain and renew the life of the earth
This fifth mark – to strive to safeguard the integrity of creation, and sustain and renew the life of the earth – is not some afterthought, added to the other four, to make up a neat and tidy list, to follow the fashions and trends of today, to be politically correct.
Instead, it underpins the other four marks of mission, acts as a foundation on which they are built. Just as the first Mark of Mission is a summary of what all mission is about, because it is based on Christ’s own summary of his mission, and becomes the key statement about everything we do in mission.
These have been the five marks of mission in the Anglican Communion for 35 years – since 1984. They were formalised by the Anglican Consultative Council and have come to express the Anglican Communion’s common commitment to, and understanding of, God’s holistic and integral mission.
So, when we engage in caring for the creation, when we worry about climate change, we are engaged in mission, in the mission of Christ and the mission of the Church.
More specifically, caring for our rivers and our waters is integral to the mission of the Church, and how we approach creation. The creation story in Genesis begins with the Spirit of God sweeping over the face of the waters (Genesis 1: 2), and all living life emerging from the waters (Genesis 1: 20-21).
In the second creation account, a river flows out of Eden to water the garden, and divides into four branches (Genesis 2: 10-14).
We often think of the story of Adam and Eve being sent out of the garden as a punishment. But some of the rabbis also saw it as a command to go out into the world, being sent out in God’s mission, to be God’s partners in God’s mission. (see Genesis 3: 23).
We are told we are given dominion over creation. Dominion does not give absolute, capricious power. It is responsible, and those who have dominion are answerable to the true ruler.
We are partners with God in creation, and that means we are sent out into the world as God’s partners in creation. And this God constantly looks at creation and constantly sees that this is good.
Our dominion over the rivers and waters carries responsibilities. We have to answer for that. When God looks at the rivers and the seas, are they still good? How have we discharged our responsibilities?
Throughout Christ’s ministry, it is worth noticing how water is not merely a setting but is part of his ministry. His ministry and mission begin with the parting of the waters at his Baptism by Saint John the Baptist. His first sign in Saint John’s Gospel is with water at the wedding in Cana.
He heals by the waters of the Pool of Siloam, he calms the waters in the storms; when he dies, water flows from his side (John 19: 39). After the Resurrection, his first meal with the Disciples is by the waters of Tiberias (see John 21).
But if the waters of creation, the rivers of Eden, are at the beginning of the creation story, are at the beginning of our partnership in mission in the world, are at the heart of our care for creation in the world, then the same is true for the vision of the culmination of all God’s plans for creation.
The Bible outlines this hope in the Book of Revelation, with the promise of the New Heaven and the Earth (see Revelation 21). In this vision, Saint John sees ‘the river of the water of life, bright as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb through the middle of the street of the city. On either side of the river is the tree of life … and the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations … Let anyone who wishes take the water of life as a gift’ (John 22: 1-2).
During Lent this year, I am using the USPG Prayer Diary, Pray with the World Church, for my morning prayers and reflections.
USPG (United Society Partners in the Gospel) is the Anglican mission agency that partners churches and communities worldwide in God’s mission to enliven faith, strengthen relationships, unlock potential, and champion justice. It was founded in 1701.
This week (31 March to 6 April 2019), the USPG Prayer Diary is focussing on the theme of Climate. This theme was introduced yesterday [31 March] with a short article from the Church of South India’s Green Schools programme, which is inspiring a new generation to care for the environment.
Monday 1 April 2019:
Give thanks for the created world in all its beauty and fragility, for the divine imagination behind it and for our senses to appreciate it.
Most merciful God,
who by the death and resurrection of your Son Jesus Christ
delivered and saved the world:
Grant that by faith in him who suffered on the cross,
we may triumph in the power of his victory;
through Jesus Christ our Lord.
The Lenten Collect:
Almighty and everlasting God,
you hate nothing that you have made
and forgive the sins of all those who are penitent:
Create and make in us new and contrite hearts
that we, worthily lamenting our sins
and acknowledging our wretchedness,
may receive from you, the God of all mercy,
perfect remission and forgiveness;
through Jesus Christ our Lord.