Wednesday, 23 March 2011

Who is Jesus? A Lenten Talk

Our images of Jesus may be inherited, but they have shaped how we think of him even before we form the foundations of our own adult faith (Montage: Patrick Comerford)

Patrick Comerford

Who is Jesus? A Lenten Talk

Holmpatrick Parish, Skerries, Co Dublin

8 p.m., Wednesday 23 March 2011

Who is Jesus?

Let me begin by asking you to throw out some words that you would use to describe Jesus. Just try to throw them out at random: My Saviour; My Lord; the Way, the Truth and the Light.

How about the images you have?

What comes to mind when I ask you think about Jesus?

Detail of a stained glass window in Saint Philip’s Church, Leicester

The Baby Jesus?

The Good Shepherd

The Good Shepherd?

The Crucifixion

Jesus on the Cross?

The Resurrection

The Risen Jesus?

For some of our neighbours and friends, the images they have of Jesus, the answers they give may include:

The richly-decorated Sacred Heart chapel in Saint Patrick’s Church, Portrane (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2010)

● the Sacred Heart;
● Our Lord ...
● or even simply God.

If your neighbours are Muslims, it may be: “A Prophet.”

If they are Jews, it may be “A rabbi” or “a teacher.”

Even if they are agnostics, sceptics or atheists, they may still concede he is a wise teacher, an ethical guide, a key figure in understanding historical events ever since.

But did anyone say:

● Christ the King?
● The Second Person of the Trinity?
● The Light of the World?

Holman Hunt’s ‘The Light of the World’

I remember Holman Hunt’s The Light of the World as the first image of Christ that I saw as a child, sitting on my grandmother’s lap as a small child.

The images we have of Jesus have probably been with us since early childhood, they may have been passed down in our families over generations. They may have been there since even before we were brought to church or Sunday School. They determine the answers we give to the question: Who is Jesus?

So our thinking about Jesus and who is are shaped by factors that we may not even be conscious of as adults.

The icon of Christ from Saint Catherine’s Monastery, Mount Sinai, is one of the earliest known images of Jesus

In the Bible, we find a number of titles for Jesus:

1, Son of Man: This title is also found in the Old Testament. In the Psalms, the Book of Job, and other books, it is used for humanity as a whole. In the Book of Ezekiel, the title occurs 94 times, and refers to the author.

We find the title ‘Son of Man’ is found 82 times in the Four Gospels, but only in the sayings of Jesus. We could say it denotes the fullness of what it is to be human. In the Passion narratives, it underlines the nature and power of righteous suffering. So, we could interpret it as saying Jesus is what it truly is to be truly human.

The Adoration of the Lamb on the Throne ... the main panel in the Ghent Altarpiece

2, The Lamb of God: This title is given to Christ at the beginning of his public ministry as he approaches John the Baptist. It has resonances of the Passover, so John’s Gospel begins with Jesus hailed as the Lamb of God and closes with his death as the Paschal Lamb is sacrificed in the Temple. This title speaks to us, therefore, of self-sacrifice, revealing a God who suffers for and with us.

3, The New Adam: this is a title found in particular in the Epistles. It describes Jesus in a way that restores humanity to all that God has created us for. In other words, the identity of the wholeness of faithful humanity is to be found in Jesus. He is the one that humanity can both identify with and aspire to.

4, The Son of God: In the Old Testament, angels, and just and pious men are called Sons of God, and the title is also used in the Old Testament for Israel and the Israelites as a nation: “Let my son go that he may serve me.” It is also used for kings and leaders.

But in the Gospel use of the title, the vocabulary shifts from earthly to unique truths, and it serves to join heaven and earth in Jesus a person. It is used at his baptism and transfiguration, where it signifies a transcendent fact before foundation of word. It invites us to understand two unique relational concepts: the relationship of God in Trinity, and the relationship God has with humanity.

5, Lord: In the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the word Lord (kyrios) is used to translate the sacred names of God so that they are not used in vain or blasphemously by those who read the text. In other words, at the time of Jesus, there is a loaded meaning to the word kyrios, which signifies a temporal ruler, but also has a hidden, religious reference to divinity. In the Gospels, it is used a sign of his authority as miracle worker (Mark, Matthew) and as a teacher (Luke). So when some translations render kyrios as “Lord” in reference to God in the Old Testament, but as “Sir” in references to Jesus, can you see how the Gospel writer’s build-up of expectation about who Jesus is begins to be lost?

When Jesus stills the storm on the lake, he is not just a wonder worker with an interesting bag of tricks, he is indicating that he is the lord of creation

When Jesus stills the storm on the lake, he is not just a wonder worker with an interesting bag of tricks, he is indicating that he is the lord of creation.

6, Prophet: Did he think of himself as a prophet?

7, Messiah: We read back, with the benefit of the hindsight of Christian faith our own interpretation of Messiah or Christ. But at the time of Jesus, the Jewish people had many different expectations of the Messiah, and did not necessarily identify the Messiah with the Suffering Servant of Isaiah. The Messiah might be a king, a liberator, the one who ushers in a new reign of justice; the suffering servant might be the whole nation, the whole people. But Jesus was obviously not a warrior king like David, and he was not accepted by the whole people.

We can read too much into these titles too, and find them too restrictive in their meanings and our understandings if we first of all deny that their purposes are in their symbolism.

They seek to point not only to Christ as fully God, but to the fullness of humanity in Jesus. If we have difficulties in knowing who Jesus is for us, remember so too did the disciples … and they lived with his earthly presence for years.

Jesus is someone we grow into, someone we are transformed into by grace.

Sharing that which Jesus is, the way of the agape, growing into the new Adam in love, being self-sacrificial, is being caught into relationship with God.

But I have another problem with titles. And it is this: if I was talk about Patrick as a canon, chaplain, lecturer and writer, these titles may tell you about my functions, and my relationship with the Church, but they tell you very little about my personality, and little about how we can get to know one another in friendship.

On the other hand, if I share some personal biographical details, some CV details, then we’re beginning to get to know one another. I’m 59, I went to school in Gormanston, my grandparents are buried in Portrane, I have two adult sons, I worked as a journalist for many years ... why, we may even become friends.

And if I add some likes and dislikes – I love my weekly beach walks in Skerries, travel, history and music, I enjoy cricket and rugby – then you’re getting to know the human me. We’ve laid the foundations for a friendship that can continue and grow.

And so it is the same too with Jesus. Titles are descriptive, but the story of his humanity opens us up to true and lasting relationships. We can be friends at a true and deep human level.

So Jesus tells us about himself in terms of relationship with us. There are seven “I AM” sayings in Saint John’s Gospel, seven ways in which he talks about who is, gives himself a self-description, but always in terms of relationship:

He says he is:

‘I am the bread of life …’

1, Bread: “I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me shall will never be hungry” (John 6: 35);
2, The Light: “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life” (John 8: 12).
3, The Gate: “I am the gate. Whoever enters by me will be saved, and will come in and go out and find pasture” (John 10: 9).

“I am the Good Shepherd”

4, The Good Shepherd: “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep” (John 10: 11).
5, The Resurrection and the Life: “I am the resurrection and the life. Those who believe in me, even though they die, will live” (John 11: 25).
6, The Way, the Truth, and the Life: “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me” (John 14: 6).
7, The True Vine: “I am the true vine, and My Father is the vinegrower” (John 15: 1).

So: who is Jesus?

If you were asked to write a CV for Jesus, with verifiable facts and references, what could you include that would clinch for him that special relationship with you that he wants?

Date of birth? Nationality? Education? Home address? Previous jobs and work? Experience? Referees? Future hopes?

Let’s get back to those images, and imagine them as a family album that tells us, or introduces us to the CV of Jesus, that tells us who he is.

And then decide whether you going to call him for interview and give him the job described in those titles: 1, Son of Man; 2, The Lamb of God; 3, The New Adam; 4, The Son of God; 5, Lord; 6, Prophet; 7, Messiah.

The illustrated CV

There are a number of basic facts that are agreed on about the CV details for Jesus, but remember that even the Gospels themselves present his life-story in different ways. This doesn’t say they have doubts and questions about Jesus, but they do indicate a variety of emphases, even in the early Church.

We can say:

Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s painting, Ecce Ancilla Domini! (1850), now in the Tate Gallery, London

His mother was Mary, who was engaged to Joseph when she became pregnant.

The Nativity depicted in a stained-glass window in Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2010)

Jesus was born ca 4 BC, near the time of the death of Herod the Great.

Matthew and Luke says he was born in Bethlehem, Mark and John say nothing about his birth but say he was from Nazareth.

Luke is clear that his family was from Nazareth, but Matthew says they lived in Bethlehem.

The Adoration of the shepherds portrayed in Lichfield Cathedral in Lady Chapel’s neo-gothic altarpiece carved in Oberammergau in the 19th century (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2011)

Luke says that after his birth local shepherds came to worship him, and then he says over a week after his birth, at the age of eight days, he was circumcised.

Giovanni Bellini, Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, (ca 1470), Fondazione Querini Stampalia, Venice

Some weeks later, Luke says, he was brought to the Temple, where an old man, Simeon, hailed him as salvation of all peoples, a light for revelation to all people and the glory of God’s people.

Luc-Olivier Merson’s Rest on the Flight into Egypt (1879)

Matthew alone says that after the birth of Jesus, he was visited by the Magi, and that his family then fled to Egypt where they remained until the death of Herod, and then they moved first to the area around Jerusalem but very quickly to Nazareth. Luke, on the other hand, tells us nothing about a flight into Egypt, but says instead says that soon after presentation in the Temple the family went directly to Nazareth.

We know little about the childhood of Jesus

We know little about his childhood, although Luke again tells us that every year the family took him to Jerusalem for the Passover, and that on one occasion he got lost in the Temple in Jerusalem because he had got caught up in a debate the teachers or rabbis.

He spent his childhood and his early adult years in Nazareth, a village in Galilee. Perhaps he worked in his Joseph’s workshop. The English translations tell us Joseph was a carpenter, but this simply translates a word that might also be translated as builder or architect.

John the Baptist baptises Christ in the River Jordan ... a detail from a window in Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2010)

Both Mark and John have little interest in his birth or childhood. They begin their Gospel narratives with the baptism of Jesus in the River Jordan by John the Baptist, but Luke and Matthew also tell us this story.

After his baptism, according to Matthew and Luke, he withdrew to the wilderness, and was tempted in the wilderness. His rejection of these temptations tell us a lot about the future priorities of his work: the end does not justify the means.

But he returns to Galilee – John says immediately – and there he begins his public ministry and gathers his disciples. Some of the stories from this time include the Wedding at Cana, and by then he was in the habit of going to the synagogue in Nazareth every Saturday.

Jesus in the Synagogue, as painted by Northern Ireland-born artist Greg Olsen

On one of those Saturdays, he is called up to read from Scripture and stirs controversy when reads what almost sounds like his manifesto for his future career:

“The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he has anointed me
to bring good news to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives
and recovery of sight to the blind,
to let the oppressed go free,
to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favour.”

When his message is rejected in Nazareth, he makes his home in Capernaum.

Then Jesus called the Twelve together ... and he sent them out (Luke 9: 1-2)

He soon has a core group of disciples, whom we usually give as 12 in number, although there is no agreement on the list of 12 names.

He taught in the towns, villages and countryside in Galilee, mainly in the area around the Sea of Galilee, although he visited other areas, including the region of Tyre and Sidon, and John tells us he continues to visit Jerusalem a number of times for the Passover.

The Sermon on the Mount, by Cosimo Rosselli, from the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican

He preached not himself, but the Kingdom of God – the best known example of his preaching is the Sermon on the Mount. But there are two versions of this, including two versions of the Lord’s Prayer, one in Saint Matthew’s Gospel, the other in Saint Luke’s Gospel.

Jesus heals the man at the pool

● He healed the sick;
● he raised the dead;
● he restored sight to the blind;
● he gave mobility to those who were lame or crippled;
● he made clean the lepers; he calmed the storms;
● he fed the multitude;
● he dined with Pharisees, tax collectors and sinners;
● he valued the place of children who at that time had no legal rights or economic worth;
● he engaged with the outsiders, such as the Samaritan woman and at the well, the Syro-Phoenician woman who wanted healing for her daughter, and the Roman Centurion who wanted his servant healed;

He raised the dead

And he spoke up for those who were marginalised:
Jesus calls Zacchaeus down from the sycamore tree (Illustration © Henry Martin)

● because of their work, like Zacchaeus the tax collector,
● because of their ailments seen as punishment for their own sins and the sins of their ancestors, such as Bartimeus,
● who were unjustly accused of sinful living, such as the woman about to be stoned for adultery,
● or the woman who burst into the house of Simon the Pharisee and anointed his head and washed his feet.

A carving of Saint Philip on the pulpit in Saint Philip’s Church, Leicester ... was he trying to keep people from seeing Jesus? (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2011)

But so often, as we see, the Disciples are found trying to keep these people away from Jesus?

Do they really realise the full enormity of who he is?

We know little about his family, but we know he had close personal friendships with Mary, Martha and Lazarus in Bethany. At the time, synagogue worship was controlled by the Pharisees and Temple worship by the priests, and he worshipped in both; yet his message and the claims made for him made enemies for him among both groups.

He taught in parables. He told stories about:

The Pharisee and the Publican praying in the Temple ... who was good at praying, and who was a model for praying?

● a sower,
● a son who squanders his inheritance,
● a judge who s corrupt,
● an unexpected outsider who looks after a man who had been beaten and mugged;
● a rich man who pays the consequences not for being rich but for ignoring the humanity he shares with a lowly beggar at front door;
● a Pharisee and a publican praying in the Temple;
● fig trees
● labourers in fields
●grains of wheat
●mustard seeds
●wedding banquets.

The wedding at Cana

From the wedding banquets to the wedding at Cana, from his meals with Zacchaeus and Simon the Pharisee, to the meals he had with his friends in Bethany, we know he enjoyed eating with his friends and with strangers.

Peter Paul Rubens, the Feast of Simon the Pharisee

Palm Sunday ... the Triumphant entry of Christ into Jerusalem

And so, appropriately, his life reaches its climax in Jerusalem when, at around the age of 30, he arrives, or arrives back for the Passover meal.

His arrival in Jerusalem causes great rejoicing.

He causes a stir, indeed creates havoc, when he turns the tables in the Temple.

Within five days rejoicing is going to turn to betrayal.

The Last Supper ... an image from Bridgeman’s workshop in Quonian’s Lane, Lichfield (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2010)

His earliest recorded words are not in the Gospels but those the Apostle Paul records in I Corinthians 11: 23-26, recalling what he said at the Last Supper.

Caravaggio, The Taking of Christ in the Garden (1598), the National Gallery of Ireland

But he is betrayed, arrested, and is interrogated by the Jewish authorities, specifically the High Priest.

The Crucifixion ... detail of a window in the South Transept, Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2011)

He is tortured, condemned to death by the Roman Governor, Pontius Pilate, and is executed as a common criminal outside the city walls, nailed to a cross on a hill near the city dump.

Salvador Dalí, Christ of Saint John of the Cross

All but one of his disciples have fled by now. His body is taken down from the cross by Nicodemus and Joseph, who were not among the 12.

The entombment of Christ

He is buried in another man’s grave.

The Resurrection, a fresco ca 1460 by Pierro della Francesca, in the Museo Civico of Sansepolcro in Tuscany

And when the coast is clear, some women come to that grave to clean things up to give him a proper burial.

The empty tomb ... a window in the gallery in Holmpatirck Church (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2010)

They find the grave is empty. One of them, Mary, thinks first she is talking to a gardener, but then realises this is Jesus.

Noli me tangere, an early Cretan icon in Venice

But do the disciples believe her?


It takes some arguing, some time, convincing.

Then they told ... how he had been made known to them in the breaking of the bread

The disciples on the road to Emmaus fail to recognise him until the breaking of the bread.

Christ breaks bread during a meal with the disciples on the shore after daybreak

The disciples by the shore do not recognise him until they eat with him.

Carravagio: The Incredulity of Saint Thomas

Thomas refuses to believe until he sees his wounds.

The disciples, who got it wrong about Jesus so often before Good Friday, are still slow to get it right about him even after Easter.

Salvador Dali: The Ascension (1958)

Even after the Ascension, they hide in fear, until they are fired by the Spirit at Pentecost.

They now come to believe that he is going to return again. They form a community, they spread the good news, the Church proclaims the Kingdom of God, just as Jesus did, and the Church becomes the Body of Christ.

Future prospects

So on that CV, who do you think Jesus is?


And do you think Jesus knew who was?

He was truly human.

Did he see himself as a rabbi?

How did he understand his own miraculous powers?

Did he know his own death was inevitable?

If so, why did he allow it to happen?

Why did he not run away?

Why was he so fearful in the Garden of Gethsemane?

If he was only behaving as if he was truly human, then he was not truly human.

If he remained constantly conscious that he was God, then his human consciousness was only an appearance, and God, in the incarnation, only pretended to identify fully with our humanity.

George Fox, the founding Quaker, challenged his contemporaries: “You may say Christ saith this, and the apostles say this, but what canst thou say? Art thou a child of the Light and hast thou walked in the Light, and what thou speakest is it inwardly from God?”

Who is Christ for you?

The Resurrection, Cookham, 1924-1927, Sir Stanley Spencer

● Is he coming again?
● A personal saviour?
● One who comforts you?
● Or is he more than that for you?
● Who do you say Christ is?

Concluding comments

There are a series of compliments and complements in the whole creation story.

At the beginning, God creates us, humanity, in his own image and likeness.

We say no to that, in our own wayward way.

But God then complements the first compliment by taking on our own image and likeness in the incarnation.

He does not just pretend to become like us. He becomes totally like us – to the point of death and burial and the body beginning to decay in the grave.

In the resurrection, he invites us to return to the promise of what we could be in the Creation.

In the Eucharist, we take the gifts he has given us to sustain our lives, food and drink that only become food and drink through human toil, and offer them to God, and once again God offers himself to us in Christ.

Now in the Body of Christ we are called to be truly human but to be caught up into God, to become like Christ, to become part of Christ, to enter into the perfect relationship that is found in the Trinity.

A useful link:

Just who is this Jesus?

Canon Patrick Comerford is Director of Spiritual Formation, the Church of Ireland Theological Institute, and a canon of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin. This Lenten talk was presented in Holmpatrick Parish, Skerries, Co Dublin, on Wednesday, 23 March, 2011

John 9: 1-41, The Light of the World brings light and sight to a blind man

The Blind Man Washes in the Pool of Siloam, James Tissot (1836-1902)

Patrick Comerford

John 9: 1-41

1 Καὶ παράγων εἶδεν ἄνθρωπον τυφλὸν ἐκ γενετῆς. 2 καὶ ἠρώτησαν αὐτὸν οἱμαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ λέγοντες, Ῥαββί, τίς ἥμαρτεν, οὗτος ἢ οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ, ἵνα τυφλὸςγεννηθῇ; 3 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς, Οὔτε οὗτος ἥμαρτεν οὔτε οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ, ἀλλ' ἵναφανερωθῇ τὰ ἔργα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ. 4 ἡμᾶς δεῖ ἐργάζεσθαι τὰ ἔργα τοῦπέμψαντός με ἕως ἡμέρα ἐστίν: ἔρχεται νὺξ ὅτε οὐδεὶς δύναται ἐργάζεσθαι. 5 ὅτανἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ὦ, φῶς εἰμι τοῦ κόσμου. 6 ταῦτα εἰπὼν ἔπτυσεν χαμαὶ καὶ ἐποίησενπηλὸν ἐκ τοῦ πτύσματος, καὶ ἐπέχρισεν αὐτοῦ τὸν πηλὸν ἐπὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς 7 καὶεἶπεν αὐτῷ, Υπαγε νίψαι εἰς τὴν κολυμβήθραν τοῦ Σιλωάμ {ὃ ἑρμηνεύεταιἈπεσταλμένος}. ἀπῆλθεν οὖν καὶ ἐνίψατο, καὶ ἦλθεν βλέπων. 8 Οἱ οὖν γείτονεςκαὶ οἱ θεωροῦντες αὐτὸν τὸ πρότερον ὅτι προσαίτης ἦν ἔλεγον, Οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁκαθήμενος καὶ προσαιτῶν; 9 ἄλλοι ἔλεγον ὅτι Οὗτός ἐστιν: ἄλλοι ἔλεγον, Οὐχί,ἀλλὰ ὅμοιος αὐτῷ ἐστιν. ἐκεῖνος ἔλεγεν ὅτι Ἐγώ εἰμι. 10 ἔλεγον οὖν αὐτῷ, Πῶς [οὖν] ἠνεῴχθησάν σου οἱὀφθαλμοί; 11 ἀπεκρίθη ἐκεῖνος, Ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ λεγόμενος Ἰησοῦς πηλὸν ἐποίησεν καὶ ἐπέχρισέν μου τοὺςὀφθαλμοὺς καὶ εἶπέν μοι ὅτι Υπαγε εἰς τὸν Σιλωὰμ καὶ νίψαι: ἀπελθὼν οὖν καὶ νιψάμενος ἀνέβλεψα.12 καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ, Ποῦ ἐστιν ἐκεῖνος; λέγει, Οὐκ οἶδα.

13 Ἄγουσιν αὐτὸν πρὸς τοὺς Φαρισαίους τόν ποτετυφλόν. 14 ἦν δὲ σάββατον ἐν ἧ ἡμέρᾳ τὸν πηλὸν ἐποίησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ ἀνέῳξεν αὐτοῦ τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς.15 πάλιν οὖν ἠρώτων αὐτὸν καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι πῶς ἀνέβλεψεν. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Πηλὸν ἐπέθηκέν μου ἐπὶτοὺς ὀφθαλμούς, καὶ ἐνιψάμην, καὶ βλέπω. 16 ἔλεγον οὖν ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων τινές, Οὐκ ἔστιν οὗτος παρὰθεοῦ ὁ ἄνθρωπος, ὅτι τὸ σάββατον οὐ τηρεῖ. ἄλλοι [δὲ] ἔλεγον, Πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος ἁμαρτωλὸςτοιαῦτα σημεῖα ποιεῖν; καὶ σχίσμα ἦν ἐν αὐτοῖς. 17 λέγουσιν οὖν τῷ τυφλῷ πάλιν, Τί σὺ λέγεις περὶαὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἠνέῳξέν σου τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν ὅτι Προφήτης ἐστίν.

18 Οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν οὖν οἱἸουδαῖοι περὶ αὐτοῦ ὅτι ἦν τυφλὸς καὶ ἀνέβλεψεν, ἕως ὅτου ἐφώνησαν τοὺς γονεῖς αὐτοῦ τοῦἀναβλέψαντος 19 καὶ ἠρώτησαν αὐτοὺς λέγοντες, Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς ὑμῶν, ὃν ὑμεῖς λέγετε ὅτι τυφλὸςἐγεννήθη; πῶς οὖν βλέπει ἄρτι; 20 ἀπεκρίθησαν οὖν οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ καὶ εἶπαν, Οἴδαμεν ὅτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁυἱὸς ἡμῶν καὶ ὅτι τυφλὸς ἐγεννήθη: 21 πῶς δὲ νῦν βλέπει οὐκ οἴδαμεν, ἢ τίς ἤνοιξεν αὐτοῦ τοὺςὀφθαλμοὺς ἡμεῖς οὐκ οἴδαμεν: αὐτὸν ἐρωτήσατε, ἡλικίαν ἔχει, αὐτὸς περὶ ἑαυτοῦ λαλήσει. 22 ταῦτα εἶπανοἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ ὅτι ἐφοβοῦντο τοὺς Ἰουδαίους, ἤδη γὰρ συνετέθειντο οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἵνα ἐάν τις αὐτὸνὁμολογήσῃ Χριστόν, ἀποσυνάγωγος γένηται. 23 διὰ τοῦτο οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ εἶπαν ὅτι Ἡλικίαν ἔχει, αὐτὸνἐπερωτήσατε.

24 Ἐφώνησαν οὖν τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐκ δευτέρου ὃς ἦν τυφλὸς καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ, Δὸς δόξαν τῷθεῷ: ἡμεῖς οἴδαμεν ὅτι οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἁμαρτωλός ἐστιν. 25 ἀπεκρίθη οὖν ἐκεῖνος, Εἰ ἁμαρτωλός ἐστινοὐκ οἶδα: ἓν οἶδα, ὅτι τυφλὸς ὢν ἄρτι βλέπω. 26 εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ, Τί ἐποίησέν σοι; πῶς ἤνοιξέν σου τοὺςὀφθαλμούς; 27 ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς, Εἶπον ὑμῖν ἤδη καὶ οὐκ ἠκούσατε: τί πάλιν θέλετε ἀκούειν; μὴ καὶ ὑμεῖςθέλετε αὐτοῦ μαθηταὶ γενέσθαι; 28 καὶ ἐλοιδόρησαν αὐτὸν καὶ εἶπον, Σὺ μαθητὴς εἶ ἐκείνου, ἡμεῖς δὲ τοῦΜωϋσέως ἐσμὲν μαθηταί: 29 ἡμεῖς οἴδαμεν ὅτι Μωϋσεῖ λελάληκεν ὁ θεός, τοῦτον δὲ οὐκ οἴδαμεν πόθενἐστίν. 30 ἀπεκρίθη ὁ ἄνθρωπος καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἐν τούτῳ γὰρ τὸ θαυμαστόν ἐστιν ὅτι ὑμεῖς οὐκ οἴδατεπόθεν ἐστίν, καὶ ἤνοιξέν μου τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς. 31 οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἁμαρτωλῶν ὁ θεὸς οὐκ ἀκούει, ἀλλ' ἐάν τιςθεοσεβὴς ᾖ καὶ τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ ποιῇ τούτου ἀκούει. 32 ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος οὐκ ἠκούσθη ὅτι ἠνέῳξέν τιςὀφθαλμοὺς τυφλοῦ γεγεννημένου: 33 εἰ μὴ ἦν οὗτος παρὰ θεοῦ, οὐκ ἠδύνατο ποιεῖν οὐδέν. 34 ἀπεκρίθησανκαὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ, Ἐν ἁμαρτίαις σὺ ἐγεννήθης ὅλος, καὶ σὺ διδάσκεις ἡμᾶς; καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω.

35 Ἤκουσεν Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω, καὶ εὑρὼν αὐτὸν εἶπεν, Σὺ πιστεύεις εἰς τὸν υἱὸν τοῦἀνθρώπου; 36 ἀπεκρίθη ἐκεῖνος καὶ εἶπεν, Καὶ τίς ἐστιν, κύριε, ἵνα πιστεύσω εἰς αὐτόν; 37 εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁἸησοῦς, Καὶ ἑώρακας αὐτὸν καὶ ὁ λαλῶν μετὰ σοῦ ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν. 38 ὁ δὲ ἔφη, Πιστεύω, κύριε: καὶπροσεκύνησεν αὐτῷ. 39 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Εἰς κρίμα ἐγὼ εἰς τὸν κόσμον τοῦτον ἦλθον, ἵνα οἱ μὴβλέποντες βλέπωσιν καὶ οἱ βλέποντες τυφλοὶ γένωνται. 40 Ἤκουσαν ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων ταῦτα οἱ μετ'αὐτοῦ ὄντες, καὶ εἶπον αὐτῷ, Μὴ καὶ ἡμεῖς τυφλοί ἐσμεν; 41 εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Εἰ τυφλοὶ ἦτε, οὐκ ἂνεἴχετε ἁμαρτίαν: νῦν δὲ λέγετε ὅτι Βλέπομεν: ἡ ἁμαρτία ὑμῶν μένει.


As he walked along, he saw a man blind from birth. His disciples asked him, ‘Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?’ Jesus answered, ‘Neither this man nor his parents sinned; he was born blind so that God’s works might be revealed in him. We must work the works of him who sent me while it is day; night is coming when no one can work. As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.’ When he had said this, he spat on the ground and made mud with the saliva and spread the mud on the man’s eyes, saying to him, ‘Go, wash in the pool of Siloam’ (which means Sent). Then he went and washed and came back able to see. The neighbours and those who had seen him before as a beggar began to ask, ‘Is this not the man who used to sit and beg?’ Some were saying, ‘It is he.’ Others were saying, ‘No, but it is someone like him.’ He kept saying, ‘I am the man.’ But they kept asking him, ‘Then how were your eyes opened?’ He answered, ‘The man called Jesus made mud, spread it on my eyes, and said to me, “Go to Siloam and wash.” Then I went and washed and received my sight.’ They said to him, ‘Where is he?’ He said, ‘I do not know.’

They brought to the Pharisees the man who had formerly been blind. Now it was a sabbath day when Jesus made the mud and opened his eyes. Then the Pharisees also began to ask him how he had received his sight. He said to them, ‘He put mud on my eyes. Then I washed, and now I see.’ Some of the Pharisees said, ‘This man is not from God, for he does not observe the sabbath.’ But others said, ‘How can a man who is a sinner perform such signs?’ And they were divided. So they said again to the blind man, ‘What do you say about him? It was your eyes he opened.’ He said, ‘He is a prophet.’

The Jews did not believe that he had been blind and had received his sight until they called the parents of the man who had received his sight and asked them, ‘Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then does he now see?’ His parents answered, ‘We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind; but we do not know how it is that now he sees, nor do we know who opened his eyes. Ask him; he is of age. He will speak for himself.’ His parents said this because they were afraid of the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that anyone who confessed Jesus to be the Messiah would be put out of the synagogue. Therefore his parents said, ‘He is of age; ask him.’

So for the second time they called the man who had been blind, and they said to him, ‘Give glory to God! We know that this man is a sinner.’ He answered, ‘I do not know whether he is a sinner. One thing I do know, that though I was blind, now I see.’ They said to him, ‘What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes?’ He answered them, ‘I have told you already, and you would not listen. Why do you want to hear it again? Do you also want to become his disciples?’ Then they reviled him, saying, ‘You are his disciple, but we are disciples of Moses. We know that God has spoken to Moses, but as for this man, we do not know where he comes from.’ The man answered, ‘Here is an astonishing thing! You do not know where he comes from, and yet he opened my eyes. We know that God does not listen to sinners, but he does listen to one who worships him and obeys his will. Never since the world began has it been heard that anyone opened the eyes of a person born blind. If this man were not from God, he could do nothing.’ They answered him, ‘You were born entirely in sins, and are you trying to teach us?’ And they drove him out.

Jesus heard that they had driven him out, and when he found him, he said, ‘Do you believe in the Son of Man?’ He answered, ‘And who is he, sir? Tell me, so that I may believe in him.’ Jesus said to him, ‘You have seen him, and the one speaking with you is he.’ He said, ‘Lord, I believe.’ And he worshipped him. Jesus said, ‘I came into this world for judgement so that those who do not see may see, and those who do see may become blind.’ Some of the Pharisees near him heard this and said to him, ‘Surely we are not blind, are we?’ Jesus said to them, ‘If you were blind, you would not have sin. But now that you say, “We see”, your sin remains.’


The readings provided in the Revised Common Lectionary (RCL) for the Sunday after next, 3 April 2011, the Fourth Sunday in Lent, are: I Samuel 16: 1-13; Psalm 23; Ephesians 5: 8-14; John 9: 1-41. There are alternative readings for Mothering Sunday.

By now, we are all familiar with the seven “I AM” sayings in Saint John’s Gospel. The phrase “ego eimi” is used with a nominative predicate seven times in this Gospel:

● I am the Bread of Life [John 6: 35, 41, 48-51];
● I am the Light of the World [John 8: 12, 9: 5];
● I am the Door of the Sheepfold [John 10: 7, 9];
● I am the Good Shepherd [John 10: 11, 14];
● I am the Resurrection and the Life [John 11: 25];
● I am the Way, the Truth and the Life [John 14: 6];
● I am the True Vine [John 15:1, 5].

In addition, there are Seven Signs. Some scholars, including Stephen Smalley, want to link the seven “I am” sayings to the seven signs, although it is not that simple. For example, he links the Water into Wine with “I am the true vine.” However, different scholars associate different signs with different sayings.

In any case, the seven miracles in John are referred to as "signs." These signs are given to confirm the deity of Jesus. The seven signs in Saint John’s Gospel are:

● John 2: 1-11, water into wine
● John 4: 46-51, healing with a word
● John 5: 1-9, a crippled man at Bethesda
● John 6: 1-14, the feeding of 5,000
● John 6: 16-21, walking on water
● John 9: 1-7, the man born blind
● John 11: 1-46, the Raising of Lazarus.

In addition, some scholars talk about Seven Themes in this Gospel: Life, Truth, Faith, Light, Spirit, Judgment and Love.

So, this reading includes one of the “I AM” sayings, I am the Light of the World (verse 5; see also John 8: 12) and tells us of the sixth of the seven signs, the healing of the man born blind. On the following Sunday [10 April 2011, the Fifth Sunday in Lent], we have the seventh sign, the Raising of Lazarus (John 11: 1-45).

The setting

The physical or geographical setting for this story is Jerusalem, near the pool of Siloam, a rock-cut pool on the southern slope of the City of David, outside the walls of the Old City, to the southeast. The Pool of Siloam is mentioned several times in the Bible – Isaiah 8: 6 mentions the pool’s waters; Isaiah 22: 9 ff. refers to the construction of Hezekiah’s tunnel.

As a fresh water reservoir, the Pool of Siloam was a major gathering place at the time of Christ for people making religious pilgrimages to Jerusalem, and the water from the pool was used for purification rituals in the Temple during the Feast of Tabernacles or Succoth. So this is a very public setting for a “sign,” with many witnesses present.

The other setting that is important to take account of is the mindset of the people of the time – and not just the Pharisees – who believed that severe physical disablement was a natural and just consequence for the sins of the past, even the sins of past generations. In some way, we could explain the inexplicable way God had allowed other people to suffer was because of their sins or the sins of their ancestors.

Siloam is an interesting place for Christ to challenge this “received wisdom.” Recall the story in Saint Luke’s Gospel, where Christ couples the execution of Galilean insurgents with the tragedy surrounding the collapse of the Tower of Siloam (Luke 13: 1-5). Many may have expected him to say that their deaths were punishment for their rebellious or collaborative behaviour. Instead, he taught that death comes to everyone, regardless of how sinful they are, regardless of birth, politics or social background, and went on to teach how we each need to repent.

Here too he rejects this traditional belief (see verse 3), but the story reaches its climax when we are told that spiritual blindness is a greater affliction than physical blindness, and that seeing the way but not following it is worse than not seeing the way at all.

Christ tells us at the beginning of this reading to be prepared to link this man’s congenital blindness to the revelation of God’s works. And once again he speaks of himself as the light of the world (verse 5; c.f. John 8: 12).

The healing:

How does the healing take place? And who initiates the healing?

Notice how the man does not ask for healing. It is Jesus who sees him; it is impossible for him to see Jesus, and so he does not ask Jesus for healing; nor does Jesus ask him what he wants. This is an act of pure compassion, not just for the man because of his physical disability, but stirred too by the social judgment that has been passed on him.

Nor does Jesus ask the man about his faith or his beliefs. He is not asked to say he believes in God, nor is he asked to say who Jesus is.

Christ spits on the ground, makes a potion or a poultice, spreads in on the man’s eye, and tells him to go and wash in the pool. The man obeys, goes to the pool, washes, and comes back able to see.

Who are the witnesses to healing? Christ is not there. Nor are the Pharisees, nor the disciples, not even the man’s family or neighbours. Despite the Pool of Siloam being a very busy place, no-one asks for any witnesses who have actually seen the man washing himself in the waters. This makes another connection between seeing and believing, not seeing and refusing to believe.

He has not been asked to return, but like the one Samaritan among the Ten Lepers, he does come back. But by the time the man got back, Jesus has gone.

Those who see that he can now see include many who refuse to believe their own eyes. And when he speaks out, they refuse to believe their own ears. Our prejudices can be so ingrained that even in the face of incontrovertible evidence we can refuse to believe what we see and hear – and this is true particularly when it comes to our received and inherited social, political and religious prejudices.

The consequences and the lessons

What are the consequences of the healing: the man moves from being blind to having sight, from being a beggar to being free, from being dependent to being independent, from being regarded as a sinner to knowing that he is free of the sins that others have laid on his shoulders. Yet he is reviled and driven cast out.

In his first condition, people thought he suffered as a consequence God’s judgment on him and his past. Now he truly suffers because of what God has done to him.

We might ask whether he might been better off if he had never been healed? At least then he might have continued to have an income as a beggar, a place (albeit a not very desirable place) in society, and he would not have come to complete rejection.

Three questionings

A quieter man might have slipped away quietly, found a new job, and settled down nicely. But instead, this man comes back, and faces the consequences.

There are three series of questionings and interrogations that reveal the consequences for this man’s faith and belief?

First of all, he is brought before the Pharisees and he says Christ is a prophet (verse 17). It is interesting to note that this is a confrontation between the healed man and the Pharisees about Christ, and not a confrontation between the Pharisees and Christ about the healed man.

No-one believes the man, and so his parents are called. They too are not believed (verses 18-23), so the man is called in for interrogation a second time.

On second questioning, Jesus and the blind man are linked together in the same fate as sinners, but he rebuffs the suggestion that Jesus is a sinner (verses 24-25). Then, in a deeply psychological way challenges them to think if they are not protesting too much: “Do you also want to become his disciples?” (verses 25-27) Jungians would say he has pointed to the shadow side of their personalities.

Undeterred by the way he is being reviled, his own deep faith comes to life as he links true worship with obedience and discipleship, and confesses his faith that Christ is sent by God (verses 28-33).

Frustrated and angered by his resilience at this second questioning, his interrogators drive him out.

On reading this the Johannine community would have immediately drawn comparisons with those who were driven out of the synagogues in Asia Minor for their faith in Christ, and this story would have had many resonances for the Johannine Church.

The man faces a third set of questions when Christ, on hearing what has happened, searches him out and finds him (verses 35-41). When Christ reveals himself as the Son of Man, the once blind man confesses a simple faith: “Lord, I believe.” And he worshipped him.

It is similar to Thomas’s confession on seeing the wounds of the Risen Christ: “My Lord and My God!” (John 20: 28).

Healing on the Sabbath

Christ prepares the healing poultice late in the afternoon, and the healing takes place on the Sabbath.

By preparing and applying the poultice on a Saturday, he violated four rules about the Sabbath:

● ploughing: he rolled mud and spittle on the ground;
● kneading: he mixed them together to make the potion;
● anointing: he put the poultice on the man’s eyes;
● healing: this was not a life-threatening condition, yet he healed the man.

But as one of the seven signs in Saint John’s Gospel, the healing of the Blind Man at Siloam has more significance than the miracle itself.

The miracles follows the “I AM” saying, “I am the light of the world” (verse 5), and so serves to validate it. He brings light and sight not only to those who visibly and physically need them, but he brings it to all, even to those who do not realise that they sit in darkness.

Some conclusions:

Seeing and believing, blindness and revelation, are important themes running through the Fourth Gospel.

Think how, at the end of the Gospel, Thomas refuses to believe in what he hears until he sees for himself.

Christ tells us at the beginning of this reading to be prepared to link this man’s congenital blindness to the revelation of God’s works.

Notice too how Jesus puts the poultice of saliva and mud on the man’s eyes on the Sabbath, when new life is about to begin and healing actually takes place. The blind man’s eyes are opened on the Sabbath itself (verse 13), before the new week, before a new life, before what is for him almost a Resurrection.

Compare this with the Johannine setting for the Crucifixion and Resurrection, and compare too the questioning of the man with the trial of Jesus.

Some questions for discussion:

If you were preaching from this reading on Mothering Sunday, how would you relate that theme to the relationship between man who was healed and his family, or to how people judge us and what we inherit from our families?

How often do we say someone has got their “come-uppance” or their “just desserts”?

How often do we think someone has brought their own plight on themselves?

Or how often do we pass by someone in real need and think that their plight has been exacerbated by their failure to “pull themselves up by their bootstraps”?

How often do others seek evidence for our faith, but when presented with Christian living, love and discipleship as the only real evidences, do they continue to reject it?

Are prejudice and bias things we inherit, or things we chose to live by?

Canon Patrick Comerford is Director of Spiritual Formation, the Church of Ireland Theological Institute. This essay is based on notes prepared for a bible study in a tutorial group with MTh students on Wednesday 23 March 2011