16 November 2020
The ruins of Shanid Castle, an important Anglo-Norman stronghold, are a short distance south of the village of Shanagolden on the Ardagh road in Co Limerick, 13 km north of Newcastle West. Two of us have often driven around this hill-top ruin, but we have never figured out how to gain access to this fine example of an Anglo-Norman fortress.
The famous war-cry and motto of the Earls of Desmond and the Knights of Glin was Shanid Aboo, ‘Long Live Shanid.’ It echoes a belief that Shanid Castle was the first and oldest Desmond castle.
The castle was occupied at times by both main branches of the FitzGerald family of Munster: the Earls of Desmond and the Knights of Glin.
Maurice FitzGerald was granted lands in Limerick by Richard de Clare (Strongbow) after the arrival of the Anglo-Normans. His son, Thomas FitzMaurice, inherited the lands of Shanid and is said to have built Shanid Castle in 1230. However, there are strong indications that the castle may have stood there before that date.
Thomas FitzMaurice was the ancestor of the FitzGeralds, the Earls of Desmond and this was to be the first stronghold of the Knights of Glin. These Desmond Geraldines would go on to build many castles but Shanid was reputedly the strongest.
Shanid Castle includes the shattered shell of a polygonal tower spectacularly clinging to the summit of a large earthen motte with surrounding fosse and bank.
The castle sits high on a hill with a motte some 35 ft deep. This impressive stronghold once had circular walls 10 ft thick. It is surrounded by more motte and bailey defensives, ditches and banks. It is likely that this series of mottes and ditches were present before the stone tower was added.
The tower is circular internally and only half survives to full parapet height. It was surrounded by a curtain wall around the summit of the earthwork. The remains on the south side still retain some of their battlements and loopholes. A small, kidney-shaped bailey on the east side has no sign of an enclosing wall.
The castle was briefly the chief seat of the Desmond Fitzgeralds, Earls of Desmond, and it was the first stronghold of the Knights of Glin.
The last Earl of Desmond was murdered in Kerry in 1584. The lands of the Desmond Geraldines were then divided up and parcelled out. The castle was captured by Hugh O’Donnell in 1601, but continued to be inhabited until 1641, when it was burned and dismantled during the 1641 rebellion.
The tower was remarkably complete until the end of the 19th century, although only the shell remains now. The tower is multi-sided outside and round inside, it had just one upper storey over a vaulted cellar.
All that survives of Shanid Castle today is the hill-top ruin. The castle and the lands around it were held by the Nolan family by the mid-1850s, and Shanid Castle is still owned by the Nolan family of Waterpark House.
The Limerick poet Gerald Griffin wrote the poem ‘Shanid Castle’:
On Shannon side the day is closing fair,
The kern sits musing by his shieling low,
And marks, beyond the lonely hills of Clare,
Blue, rimmed with gold, the clouds of sunset glow.
Hush in that sun the wide-spread waters flow,
Returning warm the day’s departing smile;
Along the sunny highland pacing slow
The keyriaght lingers with his herd the while.
And bells are tolling faint from far Saint Sinon’s isle.
O loved shore! with softest memories twined,
Sweet fall the summer on thy margin fair!
And peace come whispering, like a morning wind,
Dear thoughts of love to every bosom there!
The horrid wreck and driving storm forbear
Thy smiling strand, nor oft the accents swell
Along thy hills of grief or heart-wrung care;
But heaven look down upon each lowly dell, And bless thee for the joys I yet remember well!
Ripon College Cuddesdon said farewell last week to Sister Anne CSJB, who is moving to be with Sister Jane Olive at Saint Mary’s Convent and Home in Chiswick. Sister Mary Britt is joining them there next week.
Canon Mark Chapman, Vice-Principal of Cudddesdon, said last week that ‘they have been wonderful companions over the past eight years when they took the very courageous decision to come and live alongside us in Cuddesdon.’
Together with Sister Elizabeth Jane and Sister Ann Verena, they have been a real blessing to the staff and students at Cuddesdon, to the families and to the parish as well.
‘Their wisdom and vitality have inspired us and their companionship and prayers have sustained us,’ Canon Chapman said. He recalled the immense legacy they leave to the college, not least of which is the glorious chapel which bears the symbol of Saint John Baptist at its threshold. ‘He must increase, but I must decrease.’
Mark Chapman was my host when I was visiting Ripon College Cuddesdon, about five or six miles south of Oxford, at this time seven years ago (October/November 2013). At the time, I was visiting a number of theological colleges in England, meeting colleagues who were teaching in the same areas as I was at the Church of Ireland Theological Institute and Trinity College Dublin, and who share the same fields of academic interests.
At Ripon College Cuddesdon, my room looked out at rolling Oxfordshire countryside, and to my left from the window was perhaps the most interesting chapel in any theological college in the Church of England today. What was then a new chapel had attracted considerable media attention at the time, ranging from the BBC to the Financial Times and to professional architectural journals.
There has been a theological college at Cuddesdon for almost 170 years. Cuddesdon College was established in 1854 by Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, under whose portrait I sat at lunchtime. His vision was for a college independent of any specific Church faction, and with a focus on the discipline of daily prayer and spiritual formation.
The college buildings, most of them designed by GE Street, were built opposite his episcopal palace, Cuddesdon Palace. Staff members in the past have included Bishop Charles Gore, editor of Lux Mundi and founder of the Community of the Resurrection, and Robert Runcie, later Archbishop of Canterbury. Both have buildings at Cuddesdon named after them.
A merger with Ripon Hall, Oxford, in the 1970s, forming Ripon College Cuddesdon, brought in new resources and fresh thinking, and helped develop a new and open approach to theological study.
With the incorporation of the Oxford Ministry Course (2006) and the West of England Ministerial Training Course (2011), the college was able to offer a wide range of additional non-residential courses. A partnership with the Church Mission Society (CMS) means the college also offers training for Ordained Pioneer Ministers.
The five remaining sisters from two Anglican religious orders – Saint John the Baptist and the Good Shepherd – joined the college community at Cuddesdon in 2012. They have provided a praying presence throughout the year and offered spiritual direction, quiet days and guided retreats.
The Community of Saint John Baptist (CSJB), also known as the Sisters of Mercy or the Clewer Sisters, was founded by the Irish-born Mother Harriet Monsell (1811-1883), from Dromoland Castle, Co Clare, a sister of the Irish patriot William Smith O’Brien of Cahermoyle House, Co Limerick.
With their move to Cuddesdon, they built a new Harriet Monsell House in the college grounds and endowed the new college chapel. I could see Harriet Monsell House to the right of my room in Liddon, the chapel is to the left. Just weeks before my visit, the chapel was voted into second place in one of Britain’s most prestigious architectural prizes, the Stirling Prize, awarded by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA).
The BBC and the RIBA ran the online poll in conjunction with a series of television features on the six shortlisted buildings. The winning building was Astley Castle, Warwickshire; the other shortlisted buildings were the Giant’s Causeway Visitor Centre, the Newhall Be, Park Hill Phase 1 and the University of Limerick Medical School.
Canon Mark Chapman was my host at Ripon College Cuddesdon in 2013. I had previously visited in 2007, when I was shown around the older chapels by the Very Revd Lister Tonge, later Dean of Monmouth and Newport Cathedral. The old chapel is now part of the library.
The new, elliptical Bishop Edward King Chapel at Cuddesdon became the place of worship for the nuns and for the staff and ordinands. The chapel name honours the saintly Edward King, Bishop of Lincoln and a former chaplain and principal of Cuddesdon Theological College.
Ripon College Cuddesdon stands in beautiful countryside south of Oxford, and the chapel, which stands at the centre of the college, is dramatic and subtle, modern and yet crafted from natural materials. It can seat 120 people, cost £2.6 million, and took 18 months to build. It was designed by in 2009 by Niall McLaughlin Architects and was opened in February 2013.
The outside wall is made of Clipsham stone arranged in a dogtooth style, with alternate rough and smooth edges facing outwards. Each one was individually snapped using a hand-held tool.
Refined and restrained, timeless and serene – this new chapel projects a remarkable sense of permanence. The sophisticated design is beguilingly simple, as light streams down through the hip-high windows. The furniture and beams are made of larch and ash, the walls and ceiling, rendered in lime plaster, with subtle variations in textures and shade.
Worshippers enter the chapel at Cuddesdon through a dark hallway. There are three steps down to the polished floor of the chapel, but above, the latticed woodwork draws your eye up towards high windows with dappled light from the surrounding trees.
The elliptical shape achieves another layer of symbolic detail. On one side the window protrudes exactly between two trees, offering the only uninterrupted view across the valley. On the other, the heavy, thick wooden doorway is aligned with the trunk of a large copper beech tree.
‘Much like when people come out of the cinema and it feels like they’ve been immersed in one world and are coming out into another, that's what I wanted from the chapel,’ says Niall McLaughlin. ‘I wanted people to come out underneath the protective canopy of the beech.’
The college grounds are rich in trees, and trees are a recurring theme in the chapel. They surround the chapel, they fill the views from every window and their dappled light creates a soft and nuanced light – like moving stained glass. Inside the building, sweeping wooden arches rise up to the ceiling. They are the trees, the gothic arches and a whisper of the ship.
Part of the inspiration for the building was a play on the word nave. As well as referring to the main part of a church, nave is derived from the Latin word for boat, and also refers to the hub of a wheel and to the navel.
‘It is the bit that doesn’t move, everything else swirls around it. This is a place of stillness and watchfulness. This is a place where people come to gaze,’ the then Principal of Cuddesdon, Canon Martin Percy, recently told the BBC. Dr Percy, who is now Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, described the acoustics inside the chapel as ‘seeping through your skin and into your soul.’
‘This chapel with its use of light, space, glass, wood and stone captures our hope for the church and the world, and for the shaping of religious and spiritual life,’ Dr Percy said at the time.
‘There is so much metaphor in this chapel,’ Edwin Heathcote, architectural critic, wrote in the Financial Times. ‘It has all these layers of imbued meaning, perhaps there are too many. Maybe they tried too hard. But it works. It’s a very pure kind of architecture. It would have been a dream commission.’
Ripon College Cuddesdon has around 150 students training for ordained ministry on various courses. It is the largest provider of ordination training in the United Kingdom, and has trained a third of the current bishops, deans and archdeacons in the Church of England. Its strength comes from the acceptance of diversity and the students come from across the breadth of church traditions.
Students are back at Cuddesdon, and on the off-site Pathways, for the Michaelmas (Autumn) Term in Covid secure environments that conform to the latest regulations and guidance.
Teaching is being delivered through a mix of small face-to-face classes and online, and gathered worship is continuing with the community divided between the Edward King Chapel and All Saints’ Cuddesdon to maintain social distancing. The well-being of students, staff and their families means, sadly, the college remains closed to visitors, including to the Edward King Chapel.