Thursday, 6 August 2020

F.J.A. Hort (1828–92), the Dublin-born
member of the Cambridge triumvirate
and translating the Revised Version of the Bible

Pl 4, Fenton Hort. A photograph in his son’s edition of his ‘Life and Letters’ (Photo: Patrick Comerford)

Patrick Comerford

The higher critical method of studying the New Testament was fiercely resisted at first, but by the beginning of the twentieth century it had was accepted among theologians and clergy in universities and churches throughout much of the English-speaking world. This change in attitude is due mainly to the collaborative work of J.B. Lightfoot, B.F. Westcott and F.J.A. Hort, known collectively as the ‘Cambridge Triumvirate.’ [1]

Theology in Cambridge began to move in a very different direction from theology in Oxford in the second half of the nineteenth century. A love of both classical literature and mathematics, engendered in the English public school system and among undergraduates, led many scholars in Cambridge to develop a meticulous approach to textual studies, particularly in their approach to the New Testament but also in their study of Patristic texts. [2]

The three Cambridge theologians from this era who stand out in particular are the ‘Cambridge Triumvirate’: Joseph Barber Lightfoot (1828–99), Brooke Foss Westcott (1825–1901) and Fenton John Anthony Hort (1828–1892). They contributed to critical editions of the Bible, and Hort and Westcott were the editors of The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881), the New Testament text that became the foundation for the Revised Version (RV) of the Bible. Their cautious yet thorough-going collaborative scholarship also produced many biblical commentaries that added a counterbalance to and even overturned the radical approaches to the New Testament emerging in Germany at that time. Unlike many of their German contemporaries, Lightfoot, Westcott and Hort remained thoroughly orthodox in their theology, regarding history and honest criticism as confirming rather than challenging the truths of the Christian faith and the authority of Scripture. [3]

Both Lightfoot and Westcott are remembered as successive bishops of Durham, and Westcott has also given his name to Westcott House, the Anglican theological college in Cambridge. Hort, however, never became a bishop, yet he was acclaimed among his peers as ‘our greatest English theologian of the [nineteenth] century.’ [4]

If Hort’s legacy is a dim and distant memory today, compared to the legacies of Lightfoot and Westcott, then it is also forgotten often that Hort was in fact Dublin-born, spent his early childhood days in Leopardstown, Co Dublin, and continued throughout his lengthy career in Cambridge to regard himself as Irish. If he was indeed the ‘greatest English theologian of the [nineteenth] century,’ then surely it is important to ask whether he might also have been the ‘greatest Irish theologian’ of his time too.

Irish episcopal roots

Hort’s family roots in Ireland can be traced back to his direct ancestor, Josiah Hort (c 1674–1751), a former Puritan minister who claimed a Cambridge degree and became a successful church careerist.

Josiah Hort arrived in Ireland as a chaplain to the Thomas Wharton (1648–1715), 1st Marquess of Wharton and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1708–10). For ambitious English clerics, moving to Ireland as chaplain to a new Lord Lieutenant was a sure first step on the ladder of preferment and promotion in the Church of Ireland. Horton soon became Dean of Cloyne (1718) and Dean of Ardagh (1720), a cathedral that had been in ruins for two centuries, before being appointed Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin (1721–7), Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh (1727–42) and Archbishop of Tuam (1742–51). [5]

From his arrival in Ireland, Hort attracted stern criticism and satirical reproach from Jonathan Swift. He never had the degrees he claimed from Cambridge – indeed, he spent less than one full academic year in Clare College – and, even while he was still alive, serious questions were asked about whether he had ever been ordained an Anglican priest. Hort’s lifestyle and his lies about his academic credentials became a public scandal when Archbishop William King of Dublin refused to consecrate him as bishop for Ferns and Leighlin in 1721. Eventually, he was consecrated by the bishops of Meath, Kilmore and Dromore. [6]

If Hort was insensitive to the needs of the church in Ireland, he was certainly aware of the means of finding social advancement in Ireland, if not for himself then for his family circle. His wife, Lady Elizabeth FitzMaurice, was an aunt of William Petty (1737–1805), who would become the 1st marquess of Lansdowne, and who, as the earl of Shelburne, was the British Home Secretary (1782) and Prime Minister (1782–3). [7]

A decade and a half after Archbishop Hort’s death, the title of baronet was given in 1767 to his son, Sir John Hort (1735–1807), a trusted political confidante of Lansdowne and British consul-general in Lisbon. For generations, the Hort family owned land at Hortland, near Donadea, Co Kildare, and the second baronet, Sir Josiah Hort (1791–1876), was MP for Kildare (1831–32). Sir Josiah’s brother, Fenton Hort (1794–1873) of Leopardstown House, was High Sheriff of Dublin in 1834. [8]

‘The greatest … theologian’

Some years ago, as I was researching the truth about Archbishop Hort’s academic claims in Cambridge for a paper for the Journal of the Wexford Historical Society, I soon realized that his great-grandson was F.J.A. Hort, the oft-forgotten third man among the Cambridge triumvirate. Their near contemporary, Professor William Sanday (1843–1920), Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity in Oxford, praised Hort in 1897 as the ‘greatest English theologian of the century’ – superior even to Samuel Taylor Coleridge, F.D. Maurice and John Henry Newman in the power, originality and depth of his thought. [9]

But I was surprised in Cambridge, as this research continued, to realize that Hort was in fact Irish-born, had spent his childhood days in Dublin, and in his old age recalled that he had always regarded Ireland as his home.

Fenton Hort’s father, also Fenton Hort (1794–1873), was educated at Trinity College Cambridge, and in 1815 was one the founding members of the Cambridge Union, the student debating society. Hort’s mother, Anne, was the daughter of a Church of England vicar, the Revd Anthony Collett, of Kelsale Hall, Suffolk. [10]

Pl 5, Leopardstown House, Co. Dublin, the childhood home of Fenton Hort (Photo: Patrick Comerford)

The future theologian was born on Saint George’s Day, 23 April 1828, in his grandmother’s Dublin townhouse on the corner of Merrion Square East and Lower Mount Street, now No 35 Merrion Square. Two years later, his father bought Leopardstown House (pl. 5), now at the centre of Leopardstown Hospital. The elder Fenton Hort was High Sheriff of Co Dublin in 1837, and later in life the younger Fenton Hort told his son of how as a child in Leopardstown he wore shamrock each year on 17 March to celebrate Saint Patrick’s Day. [11]

He was still a child when the family moved to Cheltenham in 1839. There he was brought up in the strictest principles of the evangelical movement, and his later drift away from evangelicalism opened a rift with his overbearing mother, who had obsessive view of the Oxford Movement and anything Catholic. [12] At the age of 13, he was sent to school at Rugby (1841–46), where his first year was clouded by the death of his younger brother Arthur, and by the death of the former headmaster, Dr Thomas Arnold (1795–1842), who had only recently moved to Oxford as Regius Professor of Modern History. [13]

Rugby provided a more liberal and more open background than the dour evangelicalism of his mother that dominated his home life. At Rugby, his contemporaries included Charles Dodgson (1832–98), better known as Lewis Carroll, author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, and he was strongly influenced by both Arnold and his successor as headmaster, Archibald Campbell Tait (1811–82), later Archbishop of Canterbury (1868–82).

Hort entered Trinity College Cambridge, his father’s old college, in 1846, and became a Foundation Scholar in 1849. He was hesitant about entering his home country as he signed the scholarship book, but eventually opted – in an almost Joycean allusion – for Eblanensis (‘Irish’). He read mathematics and classics, but seems to have read everything else too, and was active in the Cambridge Union. At Trinity, he was a contemporary of Edward White Benson (1829–96), Tait’s successor at Canterbury, and the two other future members of the Cambridge Triumvirate, Westcott and Lightfoot, future bishops of Durham. The four became lifelong friends and fellow-workers, and his other friends in those early days in Cambridge included the Christian socialist and hymn-writer Canon John Ellerton (1826–93), author of ‘The day thou gavest, Lord, is ended,’ whose father, George Ellerton (1776–1884), was born in Dublin. [14]

His letters to his father show that as a student Hort was critical of Richard Chenevix Trench, the future Archbishop of Dublin, but he was more strident in his criticism of the evangelicalism of Edward Nangle and the Achill Mission, and ‘the blindness of the Achill Herald in accusing [Trench] of popery.’ [15]

Hort took his BA in 1850. A year later, in 1851, he took the recently established triposes in moral science (philosophy) and natural science, and also received the Whewell Prize. In 1851, he wrote the oath of secrecy associated with the ‘Cambridge Apostles,’ an intellectually elite society whose later members included Rupert Brooke, Eric Hobsbawm, John Maynard Keynes, Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein, and the ‘Cambridge spies’ Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt. [16]

In 1852, Hort became a Fellow of Trinity College Cambridge, and in a letter to his mother he revealed how he attended services in the college chapel between six or seven and ten or twelve times a week. That same year, he was elected President of the Cambridge Union; previous Irish-born presidents had included Richard Chenevix Trench (1828) and William Smith O’Brien (1831), the Young Ireland leader, who were both undergraduates at Trinity too. [17]

Biblical scholarship

At this time, Hort became friends with Frederick Denison Maurice (1805–72) and Charles Kingsley (1819–75), and was deeply influenced by their views on working-class politics and Christian Socialism. He argued that Maurice offered a philosophy of religion that both the old evangelicalism and the Oxford Movement had failed to provide. [18]

Hort received his MA in 1853, and was ordained deacon in 1854 at Cuddesdon by Samuel Wilberforce (1805–73), Bishop of Oxford, who had accepted his Cambridge fellowship as sufficient grounds for ordination. He was ordained priest in 1856 in Ely Cathedral by Thomas Turton (1780–1864), the long-serving Bishop of Ely and former Regius Professor of Divinity in Cambridge. During these years, meanwhile, Hort and Westcott had agreed to begin a project to jointly edit a critical edition of the Greek New Testament, and in 1854, Hort and Lightfoot had agreed with the Cambridge classicist J.E.B. Mayor (1825–1910) to establish the Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology. Hort had plunged himself eagerly into theological and patristic studies. [19]

When he was receiving an MA at Oxford in 1856, Hort recalled that as he entered the Convocation House he heard the Vice-Chancellor ‘reading out my name as belonging to Trinity College juxta Dublinam.’ However, ‘the mistake was rectified before the more serious part of the ceremony was performed.’ [20]

On 14 May 1857, Hort married Fanny Holland, daughter of Thomas Dyson Holland, of Heighington, Lincolnshire. At the time, the college statutes of Trinity meant that married dons forfeited their college fellowship. He was offered the college living of Saint Ippolyts with Great Wymondley, near Hitchin in Hertfordshire. The couple moved there after their wedding, and there he lived a quiet, secluded life as a country vicar for the next fifteen years. [21]

There were two churches in his parish, and two volumes of his sermons there were published after his death. [22] During that time, he continued to take a lively interest in evens in Cambridge. He took part in discussions on university reform, continued his studies, read Charles Darwin (1809-1882), who had been an undergraduate at Christ’s College, Cambridge, and wrote for a number of periodicals. However, he declined to contribute to Essays and Reviews (1860), a collection of seven essays that were controversial in their time. For the next two decades, this collection outsold Darwin’s Origin of the Species, which was published in the same year. [23]

Hard work eventually brought ill-health, and Hort was forced to give up all work between 1863 and 1865. During this interval, he spent winters in Cheltenham and summers in Switzerland. He was already an experienced mountain climber and one of the first members of the Alpine Club, and he was also a first-rate practical botanist and natural scientist. [24]

Pl 6, Emmanuel College, Cambridge,. Hort accepted a fellowship and lectureship in 1872 (Photo: Patrick Comerford)

Return to Cambridge

In 1870, Hort was appointed a member of the committee for revising the translation of the New Testament, and for ten years this was one of the most exacting demands on his time. In 1871, he delivered the Hulsean Lectures at Cambridge University, under the title ‘The Way, the Truth, and the Life.’ He returned to Cambridge a year later (1872), when he accepted a fellowship and lectureship at Emmanuel College [pl. 6], and he lived for the rest of his life at 6 Saint Peter’s Terrace, a few doors away from his friend Westcott, who was elected Regius Professor of Divinity at the end of 1871. Lightfoot, the third member of the triumvirate, had been Hulsean Professor of Divinity since 1862. F.D. Maurice, who had also lived in Saint Peter’s Terrace, left Cambridge on the day of Hort’s arrival, and died on 1 April 1872. [25]

Back in Cambridge, Hort received the degrees BD (1875) and DD (1876) after presenting two dissertations, one on the reading of the Greek term μονογενὴς θεὸς (monogenes Theos, John 1: 18) in scripture and tradition, the second on the Constantinopolitan and other eastern creeds in the fourth century. He was the Lady Margaret’s Preacher in Cambridge University in 1875, and for six years (1872–78) he lectured in Emmanuel College on New Testament and patristic topics, including the epistles I Corinthians, Ephesians and James, Revelation 1–3, Origen’s Contra Celsum, Irenaeus’s Against Heresies, and Clement of Alexandria’s Stromateis. [26]

Meanwhile, Hort was devoting all the time available to him to his work with Westcott on New Testament textual criticism. In 1878, he wrote for the second time an ‘Introduction’ to their text, and in that same year he succeeded Lightfoot as Hulsean Professor of Divinity. Now the ‘Cambridge Triumvirate’ were theology professors alongside each other in Cambridge: Westcott as Regius Professor, Lightfoot as Lady Margaret’s Professor, and Hort as Hulsean Professor. The combination was short-lived, for Lightfoot became bishop of Durham in 1879. The new Cambridge Divinity School (pl. 7) opened that year, and Hort now had rooms there and in Emmanuel. [27]

Pl 7, From 1879, Hort had rooms in the Cambridge Divinity School (Photo: Patrick Comerford)

On 12 May 1881, Hort and Westcott published their edition of the text of the Greek New Testament, based on the critical work they had collaborated on for almost three decades. The Revision Committee had largely accepted this text, even before its publication, as a basis for the new translation of the New Testament, and the English Revised Version New Testament was published on 17 May 1881. ‘The Introduction’ and ‘Appendix’ explaining the work and text of Westcott and Hort were published on 4 September 1881. ‘The Introduction’ which ran to 328 pages, was written entirely by Hort, and it immediately secured him his place among the great New Testament critics. [28]

The publication created a sensation. It was received generally as being the nearest approximation yet made to the original Greek text of the New Testament. But it was denounced by more conservative critics, including John Burgon (1813–88), dean of Chichester, who argued the Textus Receptus (TR) had preserved a purer text than the version produced by Westcott and Hort, and Hort’s name became a central focus of Burgon’s attack. [29]

Westcott and Hort, using Codex Sinaiticus (ℵ) and Codex Vaticanus (Β), classified the text witnesses into four groupings: Neutral (B, ℵ, the purest and earliest Eastern text); Alexandrian (a smoothed Neutral text as it developed in Alexandria); Western (Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis (D), Old Syrian, Old Latin, the Western Fathers with glosses that caused many readings to be rejected); and Syrian (Ae and the later Byzantine tradition). Such a ‘family tree’ clearly showed the T.R. (Syrian) and, hence, the King James Version based upon it, as an inferior text type, while the Revised Standard Version is based on such superior text types as B and ℵ. [30]

Return to Dublin

Hort was elected Lady Margaret’s Professor of Divinity in Cambridge in 1887. The appointment of Westcott as Bishop of Durham in 1890 in succession to Lightfoot left Hort behind in Cambridge as the last of the three old friends. On 1 May, he preached at Westcott’s episcopal consecration in Westminster Abbey. [31]

Hort returned to his native Dublin in June 1888 to receive an honorary doctorate (LLD) from Trinity College, Dublin. It was his first time back in Dublin since his childhood. Despite an absence of fifty years, he could draw an accurate floor plan of Leopardstown House from memory. He visited the house the following day, and was filled with emotions and affection for ‘my much-cherished place of birth and childhood.’ He stayed for six days with George Salmon (1819–1902), the Regius Professor of Divinity who had been appointed Provost of TCD that year. He also visited Glendalough, but never fulfilled his desire to visit County Kerry and the west of Ireland. [32]

Hort wrote to Westcott: ‘I need scarcely say that we saw and heard almost nothing new bearing on the social and political state of the country. But I felt more than ever that no people has so strong an attraction for me personally; and, likewise, more than ever, that no people is so little able to stand alone.’ [33]

In 1892, he expressed his support for William Conyngham Plunket (1828-1897), Archbishop of Dublin, who was being criticised in the Church of England for ordaining a deacon for the Spanish Episcopal Reformed Church. [34] But Hort’s health was giving way once more under the pressure of work. In 1892, he returned to Switzerland, but he was brought home in September. He completed his entry on Lightfoot for the Dictionary of National Biography shortly before he died in his sleep in Cambridge on 30 November 1892. His funeral took place in the chapel of Emmanuel College. [35]

Pl 8, Fenton Hort’s work has changed how scholars now read the Greek text of the New Testament (Photo: Patrick Comerford)

Hort’s contributions and legacy

Hort’s scholarship has irreversibly changed how we read the New Testament. Without his work, we would have no Revised Version of the Bible, and its successors, the Revised Standard Version and the New Revised Standard Version, against which all other translations are judged and compared.

The two-volume Life and Letters edited by his son, Sir Arthur Hort and published posthumously, inspired Sanday’s tribute to Hort as the ‘greatest … theologian of the century.’ Later, John Robinson said he would make Life and Letters compulsory reading for any intelligent ordinand. [36]

Hort’s celebrated dictum is that ‘knowledge of documents should precede final judgments upon readings.’ [37] His commentaries on, for example, Romans, Ephesians, I Peter, James and the Book of Revelation, are marked by a deeply historical approach to exegesis, asking what a text meant for its first readers. These commentaries contain many illuminating studies of Greek words and their meanings, including the significance of words in Classical Greek. [38]

Hort’s ‘Essay on S.T. Coleridge’ in Cambridge Essays was regarded ‘as one of the most successful endeavours to appreciate and interpret’ the poet. Hort’s one published poem is ‘Tintern Abbey’ (1851). [39] His few hymns are mainly translations; his only hymn in the Irish Church Hymnal of the Church of Ireland, ‘O Strength and Stay’ (No 70), was translated with his friend John Ellerton.

As Graham Patrick argues in his biographical study, Hort was one of the foremost minds of the Victorian age, and his personal contribution to some of the central biblical and theological issues of the latter half of the nineteenth century ‘deserves to be taken very seriously.’ [40]

However, many of Hort’s planned books remained incomplete and never reached the publishers. These include a proposed Greek grammar, biblical commentaries and patristic studies. Graham Patrick believes that Hort’s reticence, thoroughness and perfectionism prevented him from publishing much of his work, and he found it difficult to interpret New Testament writings for his own time. It was only in his Hulsean lectures that he found the ability to interpret the words of Scripture in a way that was relevant to the problems and questions of his day. [41]

His Life and Letters was edited by his son, Sir Arthur Hort (1864–1935), a master at Harrow, and was published in two volumes in 1896. Professor Hort’s son succeeded as the sixth baronet in 1902, but by then all the family lands in County Kildare had been disposed of. The present baronet, Sir Andrew Edwin Fenton Hort, lives in Devon.

Through a shared descent from the FitzMaurices, Earls of Kerry, Hort was also a kinsman of Charles Gore (1853–1932), the leader of the second generation of the Anglo-Catholic movement, who helped reconcile Anglicanism to biblical criticism and scientific discovery. [42]

In Cambridge, the Hort Society is the undergraduate theological society, and Hort is the name of the aged pet tortoise cared for by generations of students and Anglican ordinands at Westcott House, the Anglican theological college in Cambridge.

Footnotes and References:

1, F.M. Turner, ‘The Religious and the Secular in Victorian Britain’, ch. 1 in his Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp 3–37; G.R. Treloar, ‘The Cambridge Triumvirate and the Acceptance of New Testament Higher Criticism in Britain 1850–1900,’ Journal of Anglican Studies, 4 (1), 2006, 13–32.
2, D.M. Thompson, Cambridge Theology in the Nineteenth Century: Enquiry, Controversy and Truth (Oxford: Routledge, 2017), passim.
3, M. Chapman, ‘Liberal readings and conservative approaches’, in John Riches (ed), The New Cambridge History of the Bible: Volume 4, From 1750 to the Present (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp 215–8.
4, W. Sanday, (review of) ‘The Life and Letters of F.J.A. Hort,’ American Journal of Theology 1 (January 1897), 98; Herbert Ryle, ‘Hort, Fenton John Anthony,’ DNB 1901 Supplement, p. 446.
5, Patrick Comerford, ‘Josiah Hort (1674?–1751), Bishop of Ferns, “A Rake, a Bully, a Pimp, or Spy” and “Bp Judas”,’ in Journal of the Wexford Historical Society (No 24), 2012–13, 94–114.
6, J.B. Leslie, Ferns Clergy and Parishes (Dublin: Church of Ireland Printing and Publishing, 1936), p. 11; J.B. Leslie, and David Crooks, Clergy of Tuam, Killala and Achonry (Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation, 2008), p. 400.
7, Burke’s Peerage, various editions, s.v. Hort, Kerry and Lansdowne.
8, A.F. Hort (ed), Life and Letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort, 2 vols (London: Macmillan, 1896), i, pp 3–4; Burke’s Peerage, various editions, s.v. Hort.
9, J. Venn (ed), Alumni Cantabrigiensis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011 reprint) ii, p. 448; G. Patrick, F.J.A. Hort, Eminent Victorian (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1987), p. 9.
10, Life and Letters i, p 4; Venn, p. 448.
11, Life and Letters i, pp 4–5; Life and Letters ii, p 212.
12, Life and Letters i, pp 7–9.
13, Life and Letters i, pp 18–20, 26–8.
14, Life and Letters i, passim; E. Darling and D. Davison (eds), Companion to Church Hymnal (Dublin: Columba, 2005), pp 132–3; Patrick, F.J.A. Hortpp 13–14.
15, Life and Letters i, p. 48.
16, Life and Letters i, pp 92, 196–7.
17, Life and Letters i, pp 44, 174–7, 207–8.
18, Life and Letters i, pp 41–2.
19, Life and Letters i, pp 240–73, 306, 322.
20, Life and Letters i, p 348.
21, Life and Letters i, pp 353–7.
22, F.J.A. Hort, Cambridge & Other Sermons (London: Macmillan, 1898).
23, Life and Letters i, pp 375, 417, 433.
24, Life and Letters i, p. 376.
25, Life and Letters ii, p. 172.
26, Life and Letters ii, pp 172 ff, 210 ff.
27, Life and Letters ii, pp 229–31.
28, Life and Letters ii, pp 233 ff.
29, LLife and Letters ii, pp 241-253.
30, Ryle, p 445; Robert M Grant, Seymour Cain and others, ‘Biblical Literature,’ Encyclopaedia Britannica, 28 September 2015, https://www.britannica.com/topic/biblical-literature/New-Testament-canon-texts-and-versions, accessed 26 Sept. 2017.
31, Life and Letters ii, pp 269 ff.
32, Life and Letters i, pp 4–5; Life and Letters ii, pp 367–8, 395.
33, Life and Letters ii, p 395.
34, Life and Letters ii, p. 436.
35, Life and Letters ii, p 456, Ryle, p. 446.
36, Patrick, F.J.A. Hort p. 10.
37, E.J. Epp, G.D. Fee, Studies in the theory and method of New Testament Textual Criticism (Grand Rapids MI: Eerdmans, 1993), p. 127.
38, Life and Letters i, pp 420–1.
39, Life and Letters i, p. 301; Ryle, pp 444, 446.
40, Patrick, F.J.A. Hort, p. 10.
41, Patrick, F.J.A. Hort, pp 71–4; see Life and Letters i, pp 360–3, 433.
42, Burke’s Peerage, various editions, s.v. Arran, Hort and Lansdowne.

This paper was first published as as a chapter in Salvador Ryan and Liam M Tracey (eds), The Cultural Reception of the Bible: explorations in theology, literature and the arts (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2018), pp 189-198.

A biographical note in the list of contributors (p 310):

Patrick Comerford is a priest in the (Church of Ireland) diocese of Limerick, precentor of Saint Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick, a former lecturer at the Church of Ireland Theological College and a former adjunct assistant professor at TCD.


Salvador Ryan is professor of ecclesiastical history, St Patrick's College, Maynooth. Liam M. Tracey, OSM, is professor of liturgy, St Patrick's College, Maynooth.

The contributors are: Cardinal Joseph W. Tobin, CSsR (Newark); Thomas O’Loughlin (U Nottingham); Cornelius Casey, CSsR (TCD); Jeremy Corley (SPCM); Noel O’Sullivan (SPCM); Michael A. Conway (SPCM); Jessie Rogers (SPCM); Martin O’Kane (U Wales, Trinity Saint David); Kerry Houston (DIT); Michael O’Dwyer (MU); Brian Cosgrove (MU); Diane Corkery (U Strathclyde); Raphael Gallagher, CSsR (Alphonsianum, Rome); Terence Kennedy, CSsR (Alphonsianum, Rome); Padraig Corkery (SPCM); Carol Dempsey, OP (U Portland, Oregon); Thomas R. Whelan, CSSp (National Centre for Liturgy, Maynooth); Liam Tracey, OSM (SPCM); Penelope Woods (SPCM); Ruth Whelan (MU); Elochukwu Uzukwu, CSSp (Duquesne U); Hugh Connolly (Centre Culturel Irlandais, Paris); John-Paul Sheridan (SPCM); Helen Cashell-Moran (TCD); Katherine Meyer (TCD); Seamus O’Connell (SPCM); Jonathan Kearney (DCU); Patrick Comerford (CITI/TCD); Martin Henry (SPCM); Paul Clogher (WIT); John F. Deane (ind.).

This book is now available [3 August 2020] at €25 hardback, a 50% discount, through THIS LINK.

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