23 October 2023

The Blavatnik School
is a ‘stunning’ and
‘dazzling addition to
Oxford’s architecture’

The Blavatnik School of Government is an award-winning building in the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter in Oxford (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

Patrick Comerford

The Blavatnik School of Government is an award-winning building in the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter in Oxford. I was writing on this blog yesterday about Sir Michael Craig-Martin’s sculpture ‘Fountain Pen’ (2019), which was commissioned by the Blavatnik School of Government to celebrate the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter. But the building itself is also well worth appreciating as a beautiful work of 21st century architecture.

The school is Europe’s first major school of public policy and is part of Oxford’s Social Sciences Division. It was founded in 2010 following a £75 million donation from the Ukrainian-born billionaire Len Blavatnik, supported by £26 million from the University of Oxford.

Although the school stands in the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, the main entrance is on Walton Street, where it stands between the former Saint Paul’s Church, a Greek revival church built in 1836, and Somerville College on either side and across the street from the Oxford University Press across the street.

The purpose-built home of the Blavatnik School of Government is an award-winning building developed by the internationally renowned architects Herzog & de Meuron. The Oxford Mail described it as a ‘dazzling addition to Oxford’s iconic architecture,’ while other reports have hailed it as a stunning new addition to Oxford’s skyline.

The architects Herzog & de Meuron say they designed the building to promote open discussion, interaction and collaboration and that the design represents the values of openness, collaboration and transparency that the school says are key to its mission of improving public policy.

‘It’s about democracy, so it’s circular, political transparency, so it’s glass, and Oxford, so there’s stone,’ the RIBA Journal said.

‘Clearly the concept of government and the school’s role in articulating this was a key part of the design,’ the journal Building Design commented.

‘Stepping back from the street, its proportions rhyme with its neighbours, the wafer-thin concrete slabs hover between delicate glass leaves, while its spiralling interior is one of the most uplifting spaces built in Oxford in a century,’ the Guardian observed.

Unlike other Oxford college buildings and despite the reference to it, there is no courtyard. In its place is an internal central foyer space that rises up and flows like a ribbon unfurling through the building’s five storeys.

The building’s circular shape is akin to government buildings around the world but also resonates with some of Oxford’s most iconic buildings, such as the Radcliffe Camera and the Sheldonian Theatre.

There is access to natural light and air everywhere in the building, and it has the capacity to host up to up to 550 students, faculty, staff and guests. The ‘Window to the World’ above the entrance is the largest double-glazed single pane of glass in Europe, measuring 10.5 metres x 3.2 metres.

The Inamori Forum, at the heart of the building, is inspired by the idea of openness, communication and transparency and connects all the floors together.

‘Inside, the building is quite simply breathtaking,’ according to the RIBA Judges. ‘It is one of those rare moments in architecture when the spirit soars. This is a modern cathedral of learning that at the same time stimulates, soothes and excites … It is a truly inspirational piece of design and one so fitting for its purpose.’

‘The interior looks like an unspooled film, recalling the spiralling ramps of New York’s Guggenheim but with a pleasing irregularity and offset circular skylights,’ the Financial Times reported. ‘Arranged around a circular atrium, it’s a little dizzying, airy and enjoyable.’

The building is controlled by a combination of systems and technology that helps minimise its environmental impact. The building is taller than Carfax Tower in the centre of Oxford.

The former Saint Paul’s Church reflected in the Blavatnik School of Government in Oxford (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

The plans for the building and the site initially created opposition from local residents in the Jericho district. David Freud, proprietor of the café in the former Saint Paul’s Church, opposed the plans due to the size of the building compared to Saint Paul’s. At a public meeting in Saint Barnabas Church, Jericho, in spring 2013, the building was described as ‘a concrete marshmallow.’

Building work began in September 2013 and as the work progressed it was described as ‘the latest striking building nearing completion in Oxford.’ It was completed in November 2015, and the school became operational by the end of the year. It was officially opened by the Duke of Cambridge in May 2016.

The building was shortlisted for the 2016 RIBA Stirling Prize for excellence in architecture in 2016, and received an RIBA National Award, RIBA South Client of the Year and RIBA South Award that year, and the Oxford Preservation Trust plaque in the New Building category.

The Blavatnik School of Government is widely considered one of the most prestigious schools for public policy. It was founded in 2011, when Professor Ngaire Woods was named the first Dean of the School. Her research focuses on global economic governance, the challenges of globalization, global development, and the role of international institutions.

The school admitted its first students in 2012. The school’s flagship programme is the Master of Public Policy (MPP), an intensive one-year graduate degree that prepares students for a career in public service. The school also offers a DPhil in Public Policy, a three-year full-time research degree, and a range of short courses for senior professionals and practitioners on policy challenges.

Professor Bo Rothstein resigned from the Blavatnik school in protest at Leonard Blavatnik’s donation to Donald Trump (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

Apart from the controversy surrounding the Blavatnik school and the planning and development stage, the school also faced public and political criticism when Professor Bo Rothstein resigned as Professor of Government and Public Policy in 2017.

He resigned in protest at a donation of $1 million to Donald Trump’s Inaugural Committee by Leonard Blavatnik, one of the largest contributors to the school. Professor Rothstein, who has done considerable research on the quality of political institutions, welfare politics and corruption, said the actions of the Trump administration run contrary to all that he has worked for.

A spokesperson for Blavatnik told the Guardian that his gift was for the committee that has been responsible for organising US presidential inaugurations since 1901. But his donations to Tate Modern and the Victoria & Albert Museum have also been criticised because of his links to the Russian president Vladimir Putin.

The dean of the school, Professor Ngaire Woods, expressed her disappointment, saying Blavatnik’s only donation was to Trump’s Inaugural Committee.

Several months after hesignation, Professor Rothstein complained he was no longer being allocated office space, students, or academic tasks by the school. He later said he had been ‘excommunicated’ and banned from accessing the building, although both the school and the university denied these claims.

Bo Rothstein is a Swedish political scientist and a contributor to Swedish public debate about politics and academic freedom. He holds the August Röhss Chair in Political Science at the University of Gothenburg, and has received the Swedish Association of University Teachers’ prize for academic freedom.

His father was an Austrian-born Jew who fled from Germany to Sweden in 1939. His paternal grandparents, Rosa and Samuel Rothstein, were murdered by the Germans in Chełmno in 1942; his maternal grandparents came to Sweden ca 1910 from Ukraine and Lithuania.

Professor Sir Michael Craig-Martin, who designed the sculpture ‘Fountain Pen’ (2019) in front of the school, has described the Blavatnik School of Government as a ‘real forum of ideas.’

The sculptor notes that, in the absence of public money for the arts, ‘many institutions are dependent on philanthropy from very wealthy individuals.’ He adds that the school is a ‘wonderful and important institution’ that brings together people from across the globe.

‘There are few things more important in our modern, fractured world than having young people come together, and then go out into the world and maybe in 20, 30 or 40 years, those relationships they made in Oxford will have a positive significance,’ the Dublin-born sculptor says.

The Dublin-born sculptor Sir Michael Craig-Martin describes the Blavatnik School as a ‘real forum of ideas’ (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

Daily prayers in Ordinary Time
with USPG: (148) 23 October 2023

Saint Nicholas Cathedral has been the cathedral of the Diocese of Noto since the diocese was formed in Sicily in 1844 (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Patrick Comerford

We are in Ordinary Time in the Church Calendar, and the week began with the Twentieth Sunday after Trinity (Trinity XX, 22 October 2023).

Before today begins, I am taking some time for prayer and reflection early this morning.

My reflections on the Week of Prayer for World Peace concluded yesterday, and my reflections each morning for the rest of this week follow this pattern:

1, A reflection on a church or cathedral in Sicily;

2, the Gospel reading of the day in the Church of England lectionary;

3, a prayer from the USPG prayer diary.

The High Altar, sanctuary and apse in Noto Cathedral … Noto is known as the capital of Sicilian Baroque architecture (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Noto, Sicily:

The cathedral or duomo in Noto in the south-east corner of Sicily is known in Italian as the the Cattedrale di San Nicolò di Mira, has been the cathedral of the Diocese of Noto since the diocese was establishment in 1844, and is dedicated to Saint Nicholas of Myra.

Noto is known as the capital of Sicilian Baroque architecture, and the cathedral is in the Sicilian Baroque style, with a large central dome over the crossing. After the devastating earthquake in Sicily in 1693, building work on the Church of Saint Nicholas began in the early 18th century.

The long interval between the beginning of the building, to designs by Rosario Gagliardi, and its completion in 1776 under the supervision of Bernardo Labisi, probably accounts for some of the peculiarities and inconsistencies of design, and the introduction of Neo-Classical elements.

The three principal doorways are revivals of 15th-century architecture, based on the style of Vignola or Domenico Fontana. The large central window of the west front, with its ‘ears’ and curvilinear tympanum borrows from the repertoire of Andrea Pozzo and resembles work elsewhere in Noto by Francesco Paolo Labisi, such as the Chiesa del Carmine.

The composition of the façade has been compared to those of the Church of Notre-Dame, Versailles, and the pre-revolutionary Church of Saint-Roch in Paris. Work on the façade, to designs by Gagliardi ca 1740, started in late 1767. The nearby campanile bears the date 1768.

The dome was rebuilt twice In the 19th century after collapses caused by earthquakes, and ended up as a Neo-Classical construction.

Much refurbishment was carried out in the 1950s, but these works were not entirely successfully, including the work on the trompe-l’œil of the vertical elements and the tempera decoration of the vaults by the painters Arduino and Baldinelli, as well as major alterations to the high altar and the organ. The original pitched roof of the nave was replaced by a heavy loft of Roman brick and concrete.

The poor building work and alterations in the 1950s, structural weaknesses caused by an earthquake in 1990 may have caused the collapse of a large part of the cathedral on 13 March 1996, a large part of the cathedral collapsed: four of the piers of the southern side of the nave, one of the four piers supporting the dome, the entire roof and vault of the nave, three quarters of the drum and the dome with the lantern, the roof of the south arm of the transept, with many of the cupolas and much of the roof of the right aisle.

Reconstruction was a complex process. Analysis of the debris and the remaining structure made clear how complicated the building history had been. The grand reopening of Noto Cathedral was celebrated by Bishop Giuseppe Malandrino of Noto on 15 June 2007, eleven years after the collapse.

Since then, work on the interior decorations and furnishings of the cathedral has continued. The new high altar, lectern, crucifix and organ were consecrated by Bishop Antonio Staglianò on 13 January 2011.

The new altar, lectern and crucifix were made of silvered bronze and Sicilian jasper by the Italian sculptor Giuseppe Ducrot. As a major part of the ceremony, the frescos in the cupola and pendentives by the Russian painter, Oleg Supereko, were also revealed, as well as the eight new windows in the cupola by Francesco Mori.

The exterior of the duomo is of pale yellow limestone, in the Sicilian Baroque style. In front of the cathedral are four statues of saints on pillars. The church bell is in the left tower, with a clock on the right tower a clock, and a large window in the central tower, there is a large window.

The interior of the cathedral is now simply painted white, as the 18th century interior decoration was destroyed in the collapse. A silver urn holds the relics of Saint Corrado Confalonieri, the patron saint of the city of Noto.

Noto and its churches were declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 2002.

The frescos in the cupola and pendentives are by the Russian painter Oleg Supereko and the eight new windows in the cupola are by Francesco Mori (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Luke 12: 13-21 (NRSVA):

13 Someone in the crowd said to him, ‘Teacher, tell my brother to divide the family inheritance with me.’ 14 But he said to him, ‘Friend, who set me to be a judge or arbitrator over you?’ 15 And he said to them, ‘Take care! Be on your guard against all kinds of greed; for one’s life does not consist in the abundance of possessions.’ 16 Then he told them a parable: ‘The land of a rich man produced abundantly. 17 And he thought to himself, “What should I do, for I have no place to store my crops?” 18 Then he said, “I will do this: I will pull down my barns and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. 19 And I will say to my soul, Soul, you have ample goods laid up for many years; relax, eat, drink, be merry.” 20 But God said to him, “You fool! This very night your life is being demanded of you. And the things you have prepared, whose will they be?” 21 So it is with those who store up treasures for themselves but are not rich towards God.’

Work on the interior decorations and furnishings of the cathedral has continued since it reopened in 2007 (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Today’s Prayers: USPG Prayer Diary:

The theme this week in ‘Pray With the World Church,’ the Prayer Diary of the Anglican mission agency USPG (United Society Partners in the Gospel), is ‘Praying for Peace.’ This theme was introduced yesterday with a prayer written by the Revd Tuomas Mäkipää, Chaplain of Saint Nicholas.

The USPG Prayer Diary today (23 October 2023) invites us to pray in these words:

Lord make us channels of your peace, where there is hatred let us bring your love.

The Collect:

God, the giver of life,
whose Holy Spirit wells up within your Church:
by the Spirit’s gifts equip us to live the gospel of Christ
and make us eager to do your will,
that we may share with the whole creation
the joys of eternal life;
through Jesus Christ your Son our Lord,
who is alive and reigns with you,
in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, now and for ever.

The Post Communion Prayer:

God our Father,
whose Son, the light unfailing,
has come from heaven to deliver the world
from the darkness of ignorance:
let these holy mysteries open the eyes of our understanding
that we may know the way of life,
and walk in it without stumbling;
through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Yesterday’s reflection

Continued Tomorrow

The Baptistry in the duomo in Noto (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

Scripture quotations are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible: Anglicised Edition copyright © 1989, 1995, National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. http://nrsvbibles.org

Looking through the doors of the Duomo in Noto on the Palazzo Ducezio or town hall below (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)