17 September 2023

The Martyrs’ Memorial in
Oxford was also a response
in the 1840s to the rise
of the Oxford Movement

The Martyrs’ Memorial, Oxford … a landmark at the junction of Saint Giles, Magdalen Street and Beaumont Street (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

Patrick Comerford

The Martyrs’ Memorial at the south end of Saint Giles faces the Ashmolean Museum on Beaumont Street and is one of the outstanding landmarks on the streetscape of Oxford. Tourists use at as an agreed meeting place, and the steps at the base of the memorial are crowded throughout the day by people eating street food or relaxing in the early autumn sunshine.

The Martyrs’ Memorial was erected in 1841 at the south end of Saint Giles, at the junction with Beaumont Street, close to other landmarks in Oxford such as the Ashmolean Museum, Saint John’s College, the Eagle and Child, Saint Mary Magdalen Church, and the bus stops on Magdalen Street.

The memorial commemorates three martyr bishops – Hugh Latimer, Nicholas Ridley and Thomas Cranmer – who were burnt at the stake in Broad Street, Oxford, in 1555-1556.

Latimer, Ridley and Cranmer were burnt at the stake in Broad Street, in front of Balliol College (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

When Queen Mary succeeded in 1553, Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London, and Hugh Latimer, Bishop of Worcester, were summoned before a commission in the University Church of Saint Mary the Virgin in Oxford and questioned about their alleged heresies. All were found guilty, and Ridley and Latimer were burnt at the stake on 16 October 1555 in the ditch outside the city wall – the northern part of the city wall ran alongside Saint Michael at the Northgate Church.

Archbishop Cranmer, who had been given longer to appeal, was forced to watch, and wrote a recantation. Nonetheless, he was taken from Bocardo, the city gaol at the Northgate in Cornmarket, to the ditch and he too was burnt to death on 21 March 1556.

The city records show that the bailiffs of Oxford petitioned the Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal Reginald Pole, to be paid for the expenses they incurred in dealing with the three martyrs.

Cranmer was well looked after by the City of Oxford: his expenses included the cost of wine, figs, oysters, veal, and almonds, as well as his barber and laundry charges. But the final telling items on this list were the 100 wood faggots and 50 furze faggots that formed his pyre.

On the Martyrs’ Memorial in Oxford, Cranmer faces north – almost as if turning his back on the city – holding a Bible; Ridley faces east; and Latimer looks to the west, with his arms folded across his chest.

The inscription on the base reads:

‘To the Glory of God, and in grateful commemoration of his servants Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Hugh Latimer, Prelates of the Church of England, who near this spot yielded their bodies to be burned, bearing witness to the sacred truths which they had affirmed and maintained against the errors of the Church of Rome, and rejoicing that to them it was given not only to believe in Christ but also to suffer for his sake this monument was erected by public subscription in the year of Our Lord God MDCCCXLI.’

The Martyrs’ Memorial, Oxford … planned as a response to the rise of the Oxford Movement (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

The Martyrs’ Memorial was erected in 1841, almost 300 years after the event it commemorates. Yet it says as much about the religious controversies of the 1840s as those of the 1550s.

Evangelical or Low Church members of the Church of England in the 1840s were alarmed at the rise of the Tractarian or Oxford Movement and its moves to restore Catholic emphasis in the liturgy and teachings of the Church of England.

As a riposte, these Low Church opponents, led by the Revd Charles Pourtales Golightly (1807-1885), raised funds for the Martyrs’ Memorial to remind Oxford and the nation that the Church of England’s founding fathers had been martyred by Roman Catholics. The public subscriptions totalled £8,389.14s.

It is sometimes forgotten that there were two parts of the commemoration: the Martyrs’ Memorial Cross at the north end of Saint Mary Magdalen churchyard; and the Martyrs’ Aisle in nearby Saint Mary Magdalen Church.

The Martyrs’ Memorial Cross was designed by the Gothic Revival architect Sir George Gilbert Scott (1811-1878) and is Grade II* listed. Scott was one of the foremost architects in the Victorian Gothic revival. Despite this, the Martyrs' Memorial was intended as a rebuke to the same High Church tendencies that had been instrumental in promoting the new authentic approach to Gothic architecture.

Scott consciously patterned the memorial in Oxford on the Eleanor crosses erected by King Edward I between 1290 and 1294 to mark the stopping points of the funeral cortege of his wife, Queen Eleanor of Castile (1241-1290).

Scott modelled the cross in Oxford on the Waltham Cross in Broxbourne, Hertfordshire. Henry Weeks (1807-1877) was the sculptor of the statues, which he completed under the direction of Sir Francis Chantrey in 1841. The memorial was built of magnesium limestone by the builder and architect Charles Kirk (1791-1847), of Sleaford, Lincolnshire.

The Martyrs’ Memorial replaced ‘a picturesque but tottering old house,’ and immediately became an important city landmark. It has stood as a focal point at the south end of St Giles since it was completed in 1843.

By the beginning of the 20th century, the memorial had fallen into a poor state of repair. But, thanks to a joint effort by Oxford City Council and the Oxford Preservation Trust, it was fully restored in 2002. The stone in the pavement in front of the memorial records the restoration: ‘The Martyrs’ Memorial was restored in 2002 to mark the 75th anniversary of Oxford Preservation Trust.’

The cross in the middle of Broad Street marks the spot where Latimer, Ridley and Cranmer were burnt at the stake (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

There was proposal in recent years to move the Memorial to the west end of Broad Street, where a cross in the road indicates the site of the ditch outside the city’s north gate where the three martyrs were burnt at the stake.

GV Cox wrote in his Recollections of Oxford (1868) that ‘It had been found impracticable to get a site in Broad Street, the actual scene of the martyrdom.’ The same is true today, and so the remains where it has always been, counterbalancing the war memorial at the north end of St Giles.

Few who cluster around the memorial, munching and chatting on its steps, realise its significance. Those who do probably do not know that this is not the actual site where Latimer, Ridley and burnt at the stake. The actual site is around the corner, in Broad Street. The point in the middle of the street is marked by a cross, with a plaque set in the wall of Balliol College.

The plaque set in the wall of Balliol College was engraved by the sculptor Heather Howes (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

The plaque reads: ‘Opposite this point, near the Cross in the middle of Broad Street, Hugh Latimer, one-time Bishop of Worcester, Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London, and Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, were burnt for their faith in 1555 and 1556. HH.’

The plaque was engraved by the sculptor Heather Howes (1926-2012), and is one of her best-known works.

Heather Howes was born Heather Harms in Chesterfield, Derbyshire. She studied art in Aberdeen, specialising in sculpture at Gray’s School of Art, and then spent five years at the Royal Academy Schools, London, winning silver and bronze medals.

She moved to Oxford in the 1950s, and began a career carving work in wood and stone. She married the Oxford architect Gilbert Howes and taught art and craft at Headington School. After retirement, she moved to Brill, near Thame. There she chaired the Buckingham Labour Party and was a district councillor until 1999.

The the plaque on the wall of Balliol College marking the spot on Broad Street where Latimer, Ridley and Cranmer were burnt at the stake (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

Daily prayers in Ordinary Time
with USPG: (112) 17 September 2023

The theme of the Season of Creation this year is ‘Let Justice and Peace Flow’

Patrick Comerford

We are in Ordinary Time in the Church Calendar, and today is the Fifteenth Sunday after Trinity (Trinity XV, 17 September 2023). Later this morning, I am singing in the choir at the Parish Eucharist in the Church of Saint Mary and Saint Giles, Stony Stratford.

The setting this morning is Jospeh Haydn’s Missa brevis Sti Johannis di Deo. We are singing 'The Lord is Compassion and Love', a responsorial version of Psalm 103, and as an anthem we are singing ‘Let All the World,’ an antiphon from George Herbert’s Five Mytical Songs, to a setting by Ralph Vaughan Williams.

Before the day begins, I am taking some time this morning for prayer and reflection.

This week, I am reflecting each morning in these ways:

1, Reflecting on a theme in this Season of Creation, the annual Christian celebration to pray and respond together to the cry of Creation;

2, the Gospel reading of the day in the Church of England lectionary;

3, a prayer from the USPG prayer diary.

‘Let Justice and Peace Flow’ … the River Ouse between Stony Stratford and Passenham also marks the boundary between Buckinghamshire and Northamptonshire (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

The Season of Creation:

The Season of Creation is the annual Christian celebration to pray and respond together to the cry of Creation: the ecumenical family around the world unites to listen and care for our common home, the Oikos of God.

The Season ‘Celebration’ began on 1 September, the World Day of Prayer for the Care of Creation, and it ends on 4 October, the Feast of Saint Francis of Assisi, the patron saint of ecology beloved by many Christian denominations.

This year, people and churches marking the Season of Creation are uniting around the theme, ‘Let Justice and Peace Flow.’

It is appropriate this morning to reflect on George Herbert’s ‘Let All the World’, which is being sung in Saint Mary and Saint Giles Church this morning:

Let all the world in every corner sing,
My God and King.
The heavens are not too high,
His praise may thither fly:
The earth is not too low,
His praises there may grow.

Let all the world in every corner sing,
My God and King.

The Church with Psalms must shout,
No door can keep them out:
But above all, the heart
Must bear the longest part.

Let all the world in every corner sing,
My God and King.

Find out more about the Season of Creation HERE.

Matthew 18: 21-35 (NRSVA):

21 Then Peter came and said to him, ‘Lord, if another member of the church sins against me, how often should I forgive? As many as seven times?’ 22 Jesus said to him, ‘Not seven times, but, I tell you, seventy-seven times.

23 ‘For this reason the kingdom of heaven may be compared to a king who wished to settle accounts with his slaves. 24 When he began the reckoning, one who owed him ten thousand talents was brought to him; 25 and, as he could not pay, his lord ordered him to be sold, together with his wife and children and all his possessions, and payment to be made. 26 So the slave fell on his knees before him, saying, “Have patience with me, and I will pay you everything.” 27 And out of pity for him, the lord of that slave released him and forgave him the debt. 28 But that same slave, as he went out, came upon one of his fellow-slaves who owed him a hundred denarii; and seizing him by the throat, he said, “Pay what you owe.” 29 Then his fellow-slave fell down and pleaded with him, “Have patience with me, and I will pay you.” 30 But he refused; then he went and threw him into prison until he should pay the debt. 31 When his fellow-slaves saw what had happened, they were greatly distressed, and they went and reported to their lord all that had taken place. 32 Then his lord summoned him and said to him, “You wicked slave! I forgave you all that debt because you pleaded with me. 33 Should you not have had mercy on your fellow-slave, as I had mercy on you?” 34 And in anger his lord handed him over to be tortured until he should pay his entire debt. 35 So my heavenly Father will also do to every one of you, if you do not forgive your brother or sister from your heart.’

‘The Church with psalms must shout, / No door can keep them out’ … the west door of Saint Mary and Saint Giles Church, Stony Stratford (Photograph: Patrick Comerford, 2023)

Today’s Prayer:

The theme this week in ‘Pray With the World Church,’ the Prayer Diary of the Anglican mission agency USPG (United Society Partners in the Gospel), is ‘Let Justice and Peace Flow.’ This theme is introduced today:

‘The Season of Creation is the annual Christian celebration to pray and respond together to the cry of Creation: the ecumenical family around the world unites to listen and care for our common home, the Oikos of God.

‘The 2023 theme is ‘Let Justice and Peace Flow.’

The movement seeks to bring awareness that the world humans have known, enjoyed and celebrated is changing rapidly. Biodiversity is being lost and the hope of keeping average temperature increases to 1.5 degrees Celsius is fading. The futures of young people are threatened. We are presently more aware than ever of the link between fossil fuels, and violence and war.

As the urgency grows, it is believed that we must make visible peace with Earth and on Earth, at the same time, that justice calls us to repentance and a change of attitude and actions. Instead of despair, hope can be created if we work together as the People of God. By the Creator’s infinite love and mercy, streams can rise in the desert. An economy of peace can be built instead of an economy based on conflict.

Find out more about the Season of Creation: www.seasonofcreation.org

The USPG Prayer Diary today (17 September 2023) invites us to pray in these words:

Creator of Love, thank you for the gift of life,
which we share with all creation.
Call us again to safeguard everything you have made
for earth and all its fullness is yours. Amen.

The Collect:

God, who in generous mercy sent the Holy Spirit
upon your Church in the burning fire of your love:
grant that your people may be fervent
in the fellowship of the gospel
that, always abiding in you,
they may be found steadfast in faith and active in service;
through Jesus Christ your Son our Lord,
who is alive and reigns with you,
in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, now and for ever.

The Post Communion Prayer:

Keep, O Lord, your Church, with your perpetual mercy;
and, because without you our human frailty cannot but fall,
keep us ever by your help from all things hurtful,
and lead us to all things profitable to our salvation;
through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Yesterday’s Reflection

Continued Tomorrow

Scripture quotations are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible: Anglicised Edition copyright © 1989, 1995, National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. http://nrsvbibles.org