18 September 2023
During one of my visits to Oxford this month, I went in search of the Oxford of John Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites.
I began my escapade in the Ashmolean Museum, which has an important and impressive collection of Pre-Raphaelite art, many from the collection of Thomas Combe, the superintendent of the Clarendon Press in Oxford and an important figure in the stories of both Saint Paul’s Church, facing the campus of the Oxford University Press, and Saint Barnabas Church in Jericho.
The Stones of Venice by John Ruskin (1819-1900) was an important book as I was developing my interests in architecture and later as I developed my interests in Venice. But I was also interested in Ruskin’s Oxford for another reason: for the past ten years, the Ashmolean has held the formal portrait of John Ruskin by Sir John Everett Millais (1829-1896).
This portrait, painted 170 years ago in 1853, captures Ruskin in a style that fulfils Ruskin’s ideals. But I have family reasons too for wanting to see this portrait of Ruskin. When my grandfather, Stephen Edward Comerford (1867-1921), was young and successful, he had his portrait taken in a way that presented him as a young Victorian man with confidence looking forward to the future.
I had always imagined that the photograph was taken in a Victorian photographer’s studio, but with the intent of creating the impression of an ideal rustic background, with a cascading waterfall, rocks, rich vegetation, and a clearing in a former thicket. Stephen is dressed in a three-piece suit and wing-collar shirt, holding a walking cane in one hand and a hat in the other. But his shoes are well-made and highly-polished, so this is clearly a studio scene rather than a setting at the Powerscourt Waterfall near Enniskerry, Co Wicklow, or at a waterfall in Killarney, Co Kerry. It is certainly not in the Scottish Highlands.
It seems like a photograph a man confident that a full and successful career lay ahead of him would like to have taken. I only have a copy of the photograph, from the house in Terenure where my grandmother lived, rather than the original. So I have no idea of the original date of the photograph, or of the name of the photographer. When it was announced in 2013 that the Ashmolean had acquired Millais’s portrait of Ruskin, I realised that my grandfather’s photograph was modelled on this celebrated Pre-Raphaelite painting.
This is the painting that led to the breakdown of Ruskin’s marriage, and until it was acquired by the Ashmolean it was ‘one of the most important Pre-Raphaelite paintings’ that had remained in private ownership.
The Ashmolean has such a rich collection of Pre-Raphaelite works because of the many connections members of the movement had with of Oxford. A number of them – including Edward Burne-Jones, William Morris, Alfred William Hunt and John Ruskin – studied at the University.
Ruskin left much of his collection, including his teaching collection, to the university. He was an undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford, from 1836 to 1842, when he lived with his mother on High Street. His Modern Painters, published anonymously in 1843, was credited to him as ‘a graduate of Oxford’. His writings were highly influential and he became irrevocably associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, befriending Millais and Hunt, and then Rossetti, Siddal and Burne-Jones.
Ruskin was appointed Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford in 1869. He was critical of the teaching methods at the art schools of his day, and founded the School of Drawing in 1871.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was formed in 1848 by a group of young painters, sculptors and writers who wanted to restore to English art the freshness and close study of nature that they found in early Italian painting before Raphael. The original group included Edward Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt, and the sculptor Thomas Woolner. Later they were joined by William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones.
The most important connection the Pre-Raphaelites had with the city of Oxford was through the support they received from the wealthy superintendent of the University Press, Thomas Combe (1796-1872), and his wife Martha (1806-1893).
The Combes were a generation older than the Pre-Raphaelite artists, but with no children of their own they became like surrogate parents to the young artists, especially Holman Hunt and Millais. The young artists would come and stay at their home in Oxford while they supported them by buying and commissioning works.
A sketch by Pre-Raphaelite artist Charles Alston Collins depicts an evening at Combe’s house with the white-haired publisher reading by candlelight – perhaps from the Bible – as the household gathers round. Martha darns a sock while Millais sits on the floor.
These two patrons of the Pre-Raphaelites are commemorated in a pair of portraits by Holman Hunt, in which Thomas sparkles with wit and good humour, though Martha’s depiction is somewhat less flattering.
Collins and Millais, who were close friends, stayed with the Combes in Oxford from September to November 1850, when Collins and Millais worked on two significant paintings, both of which are now in the Ashmolean.
Collins’s ‘Convent Thoughts’, painted in the Combes’ garden, is a vibrant example of the early Pre-Raphaelite use of bright colours and intricate details. His depiction of a nun was of great interest to the Combes as they were keen supporters of Tractarians or the Oxford Movement.
Combe bought the painting and it hung in his home with two other religious works – ‘A Converted British Family Sheltering a Christian Missionary from the Persecution of the Druids’ by Holman Hunt, and ‘The Return of the Dove to the Ark’ by Millais – in a symbolic triptych of Hope, Charity and Faith.
All three now hang in the Pre-Raphaelite Gallery in the Ashmolean, thanks to the Combe bequest.
A Pre-Raphaelite group, including Rossetti, Burne-Jones, Morris and Arthur Hughes, decorated the Oxford Union with murals In the 1850s. The Old Library of the Oxford Union was built in Gothic style in the 1850s as the university’s new debating hall.
Seven artists worked together on a series of murals to decorate the hall’s upper walls of the hall in 1857. The ambitious project was organised by Rossetti, by then was a close friend of Morris and Burne-Jones and of the hall’s architect, Benjamin Woodward. Most of the group brought together by Rossetti were not very experienced and the whole endeavour became chaotic.
Rossetti offered to decorate the interior for free board and lodgings – and unlimited supplies of soda water. The other artists involved were Val Prinsep, John Hungerford Pollen, Arthur Hughes and John Rodham Spencer Stanhope. William Riviere and his son Briton painted the three panels that were left over when Rossetti and his friends abandoned the work at the end of the Long Vacation of 1857.
The paintings depict the Arthurian legends and the search for the Holy Grail, as told in Tennyson’s recently published epic poem ‘Morte d’Arthur.’ The artists sometimes feature as subjects in each other’s paintings, and the future wife of William Morris, then Jane Burden, was persuaded to model for the murals by both Rossetti and Morris murals after first meeting the artists during the project. Rossetti’s Lancelot and Queen Guinevere panel is probably the best-preserved, and Jane Burden was the study for Guinevere.
They painted straight onto the walls without preparation. Because their techniques were not long-lasting, the vivid colours of the murals faded quickly. The murals can no longer be seen distinctly during the day, but the colours emerge on a clear winter’s evening, and look very dream-like, just as were intended to be seen originally.
Jane Burden was born into a poor Oxford family. She came to the attention of Rossetti and Burne-Jones while they were working on the murals, and she became a model and muse for the group. Burne-Jones used her as a model for the Virgin Mary on the ‘Prioress’s Tale Cabinet.’
The ‘Prioress’s Tale Cabinet’ was designed by Philip Webb and decorated by Burne-Jones with episodes from Chaucer’s ‘Prioress's Tale.’ Burne-Jones gave it as a wedding present to William Morris when he married Jane Burden. It now stands in the Pre-Raphaelite gallery in the Ashmolean.
When Jane Burden married Morris in 1859, she may already have been in love with Rossetti. She was a muse to both Rossetti and Morris and inspired many paintings and drawings by Rossetti, who painted her repeatedly until his death.
Other Pre-Raphaelites represented in the Ashmolean include William Holman Hunt (1827-1910). He was a precocious talent and his self-portrait, painted when he was just 14, hangs in the central section of the gallery.
His paintings, such as ‘A Converted British Family Sheltering a Christian Missionary from the Persecution of the Druids’ and ‘The Afterglow in Egypt’, illustrate his particular style, with bright, natural colours and meticulous attention to detail.
‘The Seeds and Fruits of English Poetry’ was painted by Ford Madox Brown (1821-1893) to illustrate the ennobling of the English language by Chaucer. It was planned in London, composed in Rome in 1845, and completed in Hampstead in 1853 after Brown’s return to England.
The central panel shows Geoffrey Chaucer reading at the court of Edward III, with his patron, the Black Prince, on his left.
The ‘fruits; of English poetry appear in the wings: Milton, Spenser and Shakespeare on the left; Byron, Pope and Burns on the right; Goldsmith and Thomson in the roundels; and, inscribed in the cartouches beneath, held by the children, the names of Campbell, Moore, Shelley, Keats, Chatterton, Kirke White, Coleridge and Wordsworth.
I set out in search of Ruskin’s portrait by Millais in the Ashmolean, only to learn that it has been on loan for some months to another exhibition. Instead, I spent an educational and enjoyable afternoon in Pre-Raphaelite Gallery, but shall have to return soon again to find the portrait that may have inspired the pose in that Victorian photograph of my grandfather.
As for Ruskin’s institute, it was renamed the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art in 1945, and then changed its name again in 2014, becoming the Ruskin School of Art, as it is known today.
It remains the University of Oxford’s Fine Art department and is one of the leading art schools in the UK.
We are in Ordinary Time in the Church Calendar, and the week began with the Fifteenth Sunday after Trinity (Trinity XV, 17 September 2023).
Before today begins (18 September 2023), I am taking some time this morning for prayer and reflection.
This week, I am reflecting each morning in these ways:
1, Reflecting on a theme in this Season of Creation, the annual Christian celebration to pray and respond together to the cry of Creation;
2, the Gospel reading of the day in the Church of England lectionary;
3, a prayer from the USPG prayer diary.
The river of life brings hope instead of despair:
The Season of Creation is the annual Christian celebration to pray and respond together to the cry of Creation: the ecumenical family around the world unites to listen and care for our common home, the Oikos of God.
The Season of Creation began on 1 September, the World Day of Prayer for the Care of Creation, and it ends on 4 October, the Feast of Saint Francis of Assisi, the patron saint of ecology beloved by many Christian denominations.
Each year, the Season of Creation Ecumenical Steering Committee proposes a theme for the Season of Creation. This year, the theme is ‘Let Justice and Peace Flow,’ and the symbol is ‘A Mighty River’.
The Prophet Isaiah proclaims:
I am about to do a new thing;
now it springs forth, do you not perceive it?
I will make a way in the wilderness
and rivers in the desert’ (Isaiah 43: 19).
Biodiversity is being lost at a rate not seen since the last mass extinction. The hope of keeping average temperature increases to 1.5 degrees Celsius is fading. The world humans have known, enjoyed and celebrated is changing rapidly beyond repair. The futures of young people are threatened by the cascading impacts of the loss of biodiversity and a changing climate. Industrialisation, colonisation and the extraction and consumption of resources have created great wealth, unequally distributed. Powerful Global North nations have grown wealthy at the expense of Global South nations and Indigenous and subsistence communities.
Today’s climate and ecological emergency hurts the most vulnerable, many living in the least wealthy nations, who have contributed the fewest emissions. Indigenous peoples make up 5 per cent of the world’s population and protect nearly 80 per cent of the world’s remaining biodiversity.
We are at present more aware than ever of the link between fossil fuels, and violence and war. We can, however, dream and work for a world where each country produces the energy they need from God-given gifts of the sun and wind, rather than going to war for fossil fuels.
The urgency grows and we must make visible peace with Earth and on Earth, at the same time that justice calls us to repentance and a change of attitude and actions. As we join the river of justice and peace with others then hope is created instead of despair. Streams can rise in the desert.
An economy of peace can be built instead of an economy based on conflict.
Find out more about the Season of Creation HERE.
Luke 7: 1-10 (NRSVA):
7 After Jesus had finished all his sayings in the hearing of the people, he entered Capernaum. 2 A centurion there had a slave whom he valued highly, and who was ill and close to death. 3 When he heard about Jesus, he sent some Jewish elders to him, asking him to come and heal his slave. 4 When they came to Jesus, they appealed to him earnestly, saying, ‘He is worthy of having you do this for him, 5 for he loves our people, and it is he who built our synagogue for us.’ 6 And Jesus went with them, but when he was not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to say to him, ‘Lord, do not trouble yourself, for I am not worthy to have you come under my roof; 7 therefore I did not presume to come to you. But only speak the word, and let my servant be healed. 8 For I also am a man set under authority, with soldiers under me; and I say to one, “Go”, and he goes, and to another, “Come”, and he comes, and to my slave, “Do this”, and the slave does it.’ 9 When Jesus heard this he was amazed at him, and turning to the crowd that followed him, he said, ‘I tell you, not even in Israel have I found such faith.’ 10 When those who had been sent returned to the house, they found the slave in good health.
The theme this week in ‘Pray With the World Church,’ the Prayer Diary of the Anglican mission agency USPG (United Society Partners in the Gospel), is ‘Let Justice and Peace Flow.’ This theme was introduced yesterday.
The USPG Prayer Diary today (18 September 2023) invites us to reflect in these words:
We commit to doing all we can do to be good stewards of creation, now and always.
God, who in generous mercy sent the Holy Spirit
upon your Church in the burning fire of your love:
grant that your people may be fervent
in the fellowship of the gospel
that, always abiding in you,
they may be found steadfast in faith and active in service;
through Jesus Christ your Son our Lord,
who is alive and reigns with you,
in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, now and for ever.
The Post Communion Prayer:
Keep, O Lord, your Church, with your perpetual mercy;
and, because without you our human frailty cannot but fall,
keep us ever by your help from all things hurtful,
and lead us to all things profitable to our salvation;
through Jesus Christ our Lord.
Scripture quotations are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible: Anglicised Edition copyright © 1989, 1995, National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. http://nrsvbibles.org