06 July 2022
Saint George, Holborn,
where Sylvia Plath and
Ted Hughes were married
During last week’s visit to London, when two of us strolled through Bloomsbury and found ourselves in Queen Square and Brunswick Square for the first time, I also visited Saint George Holborn for the first time.
The Church of Saint George the Martyr Holborn is on the south end of Queen Square. The church is popularly known as Saint George Holborn and should not be confused with the later nearby Saint George’s Church, Bloomsbury, although the two churches have shared a burial ground, now known as Saint George’s Gardens.
Saint George Holborn was built in 1703-1706 as a proprietary chapel and a chapel of ease to Saint Andrew, Holborn. The church was built by public subscriptions from a group of residents of the newly developed area of Queen Square.
The church was designed by the architect Arthur Tooley, who was paid £3,500 to build the chapel and two houses by a group of 15 trustees. By a deed of settlement on 1 July 1706, they drew up an agreement to elect trustees to manage the affairs of the chapel and to appoint a minister, lecturer and clerk.
The trustees included Sir Streynsham Master (1640-1724), one of the 17th century pioneers of the English East India Company. The church was dedicated to Saint George to recall that Streynsham Master was the Governor of Fort St George in India.
By 1713, the proprietors of pews in Saint George’s Chapel entered into negotiations with the Commissioners for Building 50 New Churches to make the chapel a new parish church. The commissioners bought both the lease and the freehold of the chapel, provided money to repair the chapel and to purchase pews for the use of parishioners, and bought a piece of land near Gray’s Inn Road to serve as a burial ground for the parish.
The church was repaired and beautified around 1718 under the direction of Nicholas Hawksmoor (1661-1736), a leading figure in the English Baroque style of architecture in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and who had worked alongside Christopher Wren and John Vanbrugh.
At that time, the magnificent baroque ceiling was introduced, along with the columns and entablature. Other fittings from this ‘reordering’ which remain are the font and reredos. The ceiling is a magnificent example of the English Baroque and with the classical entablature.
Saint George’s Church was consecrated on 26 September 1723 by the new Bishop of London, Edmund Gibson. A new parish of Saint George the Martyr was constituted and separated from Saint Andrew, Holborn, and the two parishes remained united for the care of highways and the poor.
The Revd William Stukeley (1687-1765), who was the rector from 1747 until his death there in 1765, was an antiquarian who had a significant influence on the later development of archaeology, pioneering the scholarly investigation of Stonehenge and Avebury in Wiltshire.
Saint George’s Gardens was one of the first burial grounds to be established away from a church. The land was bought to serve the parishioners of Saint George Holborn and Saint George’s, Bloomsbury. The plot of just over a hectare lay out in the open fields, to the north of the Foundling Hospital, in the parish of Saint Pancras. It was divided in two by a wall demarcating the two parishes. It appears to have attracted many burials of non-parishioners in the 18th and early 19th centuries, but stopped being used after 1855.
The first organ in the church was installed in 1773, and it has been rebuilt over the years.
The Rector of Saint George the Martyr was not provided with a proper endowment by the Commissioners, but received a salary from the quarterly assessments levied on the proprietors of pews. Two Acts of Parliament were obtained in 1816 and 1819 for the repair of the church and to make further provision for the Rector. These Acts provided for the appointment of trustees who were empowered to levy church rates.
Captain James South’s Charity included the Chimney Sweeps’ Sermon Fund and Educational Foundation. The church was once known as the sweeps’ church because kind parishioners provided Christmas dinners for 100 chimney sweeps’ apprentices or ‘climbing boys.’
The church was remodelled in the early 19th century by the architect John Buonarotti Papworth (1775-1847). Papworth added a bell-tower and two frontages to what had previously been a plain brick building.
The church was remodelled once again in 1867-1869 by the Gothic Revival architect Samuel Sanders Teulon (1812-1873), noted for his use of polychrome brickwork and the complex planning of his buildings. Teulon almost entirely changed the exterior, removed the galleries and added the present columns and roof.
Saint George Holborn has a south-north orientation rather than the traditional liturgical east-west axis. It is of stucco with rusticated lower portion. It has a single storey, rectangular plan with a chancel to the south added by Teulon who almost entirely altered the exterior.
The Queen Square façade has a Gothic porch to the right of a pedimented central projecting bay with three buttresses, the central buttress forming a column between two architraved, round-headed windows and an architraved oculus above. The buttresses are surmounted by statues of praying angels. Beneath the windows, four roundels have carved reliefs with the symbols of the four evangelists.
To either side of this bay are three rounded-arched, traceried windows.
The Cosmo Place return has a central round-arched entrance and four windows. Over the west end, small square-plan tower has Gothic canopies and a clock, and the tower is surmounted by zinc covered spirelet with louvred gablets.
Inside, the column and roof system was inserted by Teulon who took down all the galleries save that to the north which he retained and remodelled. The fine original reredos was retained on the east wall when Teulon reordered the church with a new south chancel with full fittings including a reredos with mosaic inlays. The stalls, pulpit, lectern, parclose screen and altar rails are also by Teulon. The other fittings include font, organ and case.
Saint George the Martyr was united with the Parish of Holy Trinity, Gray’s Inn Road, in 1931 and with Saint Bartholomew, Gray’s Inn Road, in 1959.
The Poet Laureate Ted Hughes and the American poet and novelist Sylvia Plath were married in this church on Bloomsday, 16 June 1956.
The church was designated a Grade II* listed building on 24 October 1951, and was restored in 1952 and 1989. The organ has been listed as a historic instrument by the British Institute of Organ Studies.
Today, the church is part of the Holy Trinity Brompton (HTB) network of evangelical churches, and the vicar or priest-in-charge, the Revd Jamie Haith, describes himself as the ‘Lead Pastor.’